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.3 A 5 V- i'f r v t t'V . .V A- I This intelligent chimpanzee wrote upon a typewriter with great solemnity and apparent self -satisfaction." Their Clever Tricks and Man-Like Actions Lead Him to Conclude That They Have a Low Form of Reasoning, Crude Powers of Ideation, Sympathy and &) en a Sense of Humor T Is always interesting to know lust how much the great spes, who resemble men' so stror-gly in appearance, ap proach us in mental make-up. Some men mar still be beard to express an opinion that monkeys and apes are sot Intelligent at all, a superficial view gen erally based on the fact that they are less . docile than dogs and horses, but scientific observation tends . to place the man-like apes continually nearer to man la the mental scale. Professor W. T. Shepherd, of Waynes burg College, has been, making a detailed examination of the two well-known chlm panaees, Peter and Consul, who have de lighted large audiences by their exceeding ly human behavior on the stage. The pro feasor studied the conduct of . the two dis tinguished actors upon the stage. and also held an examination ot them in private, questioning their keepers and testing the abilities of the actors by personal inter rourse. Professor Shepherd's observations are exceedingly interesting and give the two chlmpaciees a very high place In the in tellectual scale. The conclusions he draws may be summarized as follows: 1. The very clever and man-like actions of the apes are partly accounted for by. (heir superior motor-equipment, so nearly like that of man. whtrh enables them to move with speed and accuracy, to turn quickly, to selte objects with their hands, and to adapt their bodies and limbs to many different attitudes In a way not pos sible to other animals. 2. The training which show animals re ceive accounts for many of their tricks, but the apes exhibit an ability to do things which could not be learned by other ani mal, however teachable. ' . 5. The semi-erect carriage of the apes Is of great importance and enablea them to perform acts which would be impossible to other animals. 4. There are indications of intelligent imitation in the mental make-up ot the chlropanseea. a decidedly human char acteristic. e. There are indications of a low form of reasoning or of crude ideas in ihe apea. 6. There are indlcationa of more human like emotions in these apes than monkeys such as the Rhesus manifest, e. g sym pathy and a sense of humor. 7. They show superior capacity for In telligent reactions to that ot any ot the lower order of animals. g. With all allowances made, the apes are superior tn intelligence to all sub humans and so are nearer to man than any of the other lower animals. Professor Shepherd describes bis experi ment in the Journal of Animal Behavior. First he examined the chimpanzee Peter, who dressed like a man, sat down to a table, put on a napkin ad ate food with a knife and fork. After eating, he struck a match, lighted s candle, lighted a cigarette and smoked. .He gave his keeper, Mo Ardle. a light for the tatter's cigarette from bis own. Upon command from the keeper, the ape danced on the stage fairly well, much like a man, a sort ot jig-dance. When roller-ekates were put on his feet he skated around the stage skilfully. He appeared to skate as well as a girl whom he chased around the stage. The animal got upon a bicycle himself and rode it around the stage. He chased the girl around the stage while riding the wheel While riding he drank water from a cup handed him. Then he skilfully rode tstween a number of toottles and cut e sort of figure S while riding between the bottle. The ape picked up a bottle and drank out of it while riding. The animal rode the bicycle up an in in clined plane on the stage. ' The professor noticed that he always Increased his speed Just before coming to the inclined, plane. After performing these feats Peter un dressed and went to bed, very much like s man does. ... Upon command from the keeper, Peter took tip a hammer and a nail ajnd drove the nail Into the wall quickly and without observable awkwardness. As a test of imitation, the professor took out his watch and pressed on the stem slowly, and opened the watch three times, while Peter watched his actions with atten Uon and apparently with Interest Then the professor reached it to him; he held it ' i If X lip P;r A "Consul threaded gt needle, showing a remarkably human ability to use , , the hands." "Peter appeared to be laughing but it is impossible to say . just why." Cut what he wrote. He took down the re eeiver of a telephone and listened, or ap peared to listen. The ape used a type writer, that is, he pressed on the keys, so far as the investlgstor could judge. Consul threaded a needle, cut paper into strips with scissors. He took a key and locked and unlocked a padlock, and did other acta requiring similar Intelligence. These acts by Consul, like similar acta by Peter, are perhaps accounted for prin cipally by the animals' ' motor-equipment, ' erect carriage and training. "Some of them, such as riding up the in clined plane and increasing his speed to go np, again raise the question of ideation or a lower form of reasoning in the animals mental make-up," observes the scientist. The professor did not note in Consul the good nature and sympathy shown by Peter. The former ape showed the brute In him by a certain roughness of manner and by not .obeying his keeper very readily. Peter, on the other hand, showed evi- 1 dences of affection for his keeper by such acts as putting his arm around the latter in a very human-like manner and kissing him. When the professor questioned Peter's keeper as to the sympathy and good humor shown by apes, the keeper, in the ape's sight, pretended to have hurt his hand, whereupon Peter went to him, put his arm around McArdle and by his acts gave very evident signs of ape sympathy. Peter acted in a similar manner when the professor also pretended to have hurt his hand. It was Peter who gave the strongest evidence for the argument that the chimpanzee-possesses a sense of humor. . After the chimpanzee had written something on a slate he tried to hide it as if taking a ma - llclous pleasure in puzzling the investigators.- There was also at times an ex pression on his face very much like a human laugh, but it would be rash to as sume that it was from the same source without further investigation. "Peter was clever , enough to put on increased . speed before starting to ride his bicycle uphill." horiiontal stroke of the pencil. The ape made a rather poor T the first time shown. He also made a W when I ahowed him once. Peter seemed to like to use the pencil and tablet." , Upon being ordered by his keepe, the animal put a handkerchief around Pro fessor Shepherd's neck and tied it quickly and correctly when told to do so. He also untlbd the knot quickly. He came and slapped the professor on the lower limb when the keeper bade him, though apparently with some reluctance. The animal would lie down and alt up when ordered to do so. When told to do so, Peter articulated the word "mama." The ape apoke the word something like a foreigner would apeak it "I noted, however," says Professor Shep herd, "that the wife ot the keeper pressed her fingers against the ape'a under Up when he spoke the word mentioned." The writer then attempts to analyse the factora In the apparently auperior Intel ligence shown tn the actions of the ape juat recited. In the first place he aeea in th superior motor-equipment ot the ani mal one ot the principal factors. Peter's comparatively perfect hands enabled him to use the knife and fork in eating and to handle a cup in drinking. His man-like lower limb, his hands and his upright fig ,ure enabled htm to ride the bicycle, to pick up a bottle and drink while riding, etc His auperior motor-equipment was also, aa it aeems to the writer, a principal factor in auch feats aa drlvinr a nail, tvlnr a hand. not open. He thereupon attempted to ' kerchief In a knot and untying it. etc uogs ana otner animals, if they had the in telligence, lack the requisite motor-apparatus to do auch acta. Another principal faotor in all these acts was, doubtless, training. We know that horses, dogs, and even pigs, may be trained to do many feats and that ability to learn is not entirely equivalent to Intelligence. "I '!'"'"-- f -- II "The chimpanzee Peter used roller skates very skilfully, exhibiting once more his highly organ ized motor equipment and pressed on the stem correctly severs! times, as If to open it However, he did not press hard enough, and the watch did open it with his finger nails. The keeper stated that the ape had not received any training in that act. "I held out a writing tablet and a pencil to Peter," aays Professor Shepherd. "He at once aelaed them and began scribbling, L e making irregular marks on the tablnt J made, in his sight the letter T; a very plain T, with simply one vertical and one In the writing by the ape his man-like hands, together with training, probably account for the facility with which he performed this human action, though imi tation la possibly a factor here. What ae counts for his seeming eagerness to mark on the paper might, however, be an Inter eating question. It would be Interesting, also, to test bow far the ape might be taught to carry his writing. Investigation In this line is still very Incomplete. Peter's articulation of the word "must was possibly quite mechanical and parrot like, perhaps not understood by himself. Still. It would be interesting, the professor observes, to test how far such speaking by apea might be carried. Peter's correct attempt to open the watch appears to the Investigator like intel ligent imitation. However. though the . keeper assured the professor that the ape had had no training in that act the scien tist is Inclined to doubt the statement Then, perhaps, we could account tor the re action by the ape's hands, his training and the well-known curiosity of all monkeys. If the veracity of the keeper can be relied upon, we have here, as it appears to the writer, a case ot Intelligent imitation. "In the matter of the ape Increasing speed to ride up the Inclined plane, if train ing doea not account tor it, we appear to aee evidence of something very like Ideation or reasoning of a low order," com ments Professor Shepherd. "If, in this In stance, ldeaa are present they are perhaps what Hobhonse has named practical ideas, . L e crude and unanalysed ideas. The writer is inclined to believe that the lat ter, together with motor-equipment and training, are the factors Involved." Consul, the other ape observed, did most ot the feats which Peter had done, such as putting on a napkin and eating at a table, getting upon a bicycle and riding around the atage, riding between nine bottle, rid ing up an inclined plane. Consul did these acta in a similar manner. The latter ape also performed some other feats. He poured out hie coffee, picked his teeth, cleaned his teeth with a brush, cleaned his tooth brash. He rode a wheel with a lamp on his head, held by himself while riding; he bored with an auger, put the rounds in ami fitted together a ladder. What the Chinese Can Teach Us About Marriage THAT young men and women ot the civilised countries are physically with some helo. . He took a tablet and pencil and wrote, or the keeper aald he wrote; but the professor could not make Copyright 1918, by the Star Comoaar.' Graat Britain Biht Raaarvtd. ready tor marriage many yeare before they are financially ready to un- -dertake ita responsibilities, is now given as the cause for the Increase of the so cial evil with its.tradn of illegitimacy,, disease and childlessness. Students of social betterment have found that the confirmed bachelors and spinsters who are apparently shirking duties of privileges of marriage and child-birth, do so not because of disin clination or preference, but rather be cause of lack of sufficient Incomes to warrant an early, natural and happy marriage. ' Sociologists, college professors ana leaders ot young people's organisations . have for many years deplored the de crease In early marriages. They have urged yoang men to marry and trust to luck and hard work for the bread sup ply. They have asserted that one love affair In every life predominates all others, that when this has come It is time to marry, as love is likely never to come with the same force again. Yet all of this, though true, cannot persuade a far seeing young man or girl to take the venture on a salary of twelve dollars a week. In China It Is the parents of prospec tive bridegrooms who make the arrange ments tor the marriage ot their sons. They aid and supervise the choice of a wife and carry on all negotiations for the dower of the bride. After the marriage ceremony the young bride is obliged to take up her abode in the home ot her father-in-law. Her hus band's living and her own are thereby guaranteed and the bridegroom usually serve In hla father's business. After as certain period he becomes the sole means of support the parents always retaining however the direction ot the home, un til, in turn, a younger generation is mar ried, apprenticed, and ready to take the reins of support , Among the Caucasian races a girl is physically ready for marriage . between the years of seventeen and twenty, and a young man from nineteen to twenty two. Instead, however, ot the. majority ot marriages happening at these ages we find them along In the very late twen ties and early thirties) owing to the fact that young men cannot establish themselves in sufficiently remunerative work until they are nearly thirty. The solution of the problema Involved in the increasing childlessness per cap ita, In the disappointed lives, in much ot our younger life may be found in apply, ing the best ot the Chinese principles. This would mean that father must shoulder the responsibility of equipping his son for a certain earning capacity la his own or some other trade before the son passes the age of twenty; that the father must see to It that the son earns a marriageable aalary at twenty or sup plement It from his own; or if these steps are not possible he must take un der the protection of hla own roof hla son's new bride until the son himself be comes a self supporting father and la turn takes on the responsibilities pi fatherhood. Following such a scheme of things college-trained man would have to grad uate from his atudles at about nineteen years of age and enter Immediately on hla life work. In a year or two he would be in a position to marry with some de gree of safety for his bride. He would obtain some financial assistance from hla rather If that were necessary. This would then make things aa in the old days, when many girls were married at sixteen and when parents were not tn such a great hurry to shunt their young offspring out to shift for themselTa.