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The farmer and mechanic. [volume] (Raleigh, N.C.) 18??-19??, February 08, 1910, Image 5

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THE FAMFlt AND MFCHAVTC
5
First to Find the Natural Causes for the Varia
tion of the Pagnetic Needle of the Compass
ISO THEN PEARY FAILED
NEIGH TRUE POLE
Major William A. Guthrie, of Dur
ham, Publishes to World Great D.s- '
covcpy of David G. McDuffie, of .
i
Fayetteville, Who is Dcxlared to;
Have Solved a Problem f the Ages
by His Calculations, It llcing Shown
1 hat if Commander Peary Depended
on the Magnetic Needle Alone That j
He Failed to Kck Ii the North Pole j
of the 1 arth. But Mast Have Reach- j
i
cd the Magnetic Pole on the Cir- !
eumicrence of the Earth, Far DU- ;
lam from the North Pole. !
I
A Great Discovery, that gives the i
diseoerer the right to be ranked with
the greatest of scientists of the world's
history, is set, out in a book .ut is
sued, the author of the book being
Major William A. Guthrie, of Dur- ;
ham, the book l.eing copyrighted by ;
the author, newspaper publications of !
the matter in the book, in whole or ;
in part being made by his permis- j
sion. i
This book sets forth the Great Dis
cover In 1889 by the late David G.
McDuffie, of Fayetteville, who died
in 1891. as being the scientific causes
fcr the variations of the Magnetic
Needle, and that this is the first pub
lication made for the reasons set forth
by the author, Maj. Guthrie, the triend
of McDuffie. formerly of Fayetteville.
row cf Durham, th book being an
"In Memoriam" and a tribute to the
surveyor and scientist.
In the book Ma'. Gu'hrie sets out
the McDuffie family history and gives
the explanation made by McDuffie as
to the natural causes of the varia
tions of the Magnetic Needle, a mat
ttr fxed by no other scientist. The
author holds that if McDuffie is right,
then that if Dr. Cook or fnmminler
pearv had only the Magnetic Needle
as a guide, that they may have
reached the North Magnetic Jo:e by
its aid, but with McDuffie right, "they
would jtill be a long way off from the
North Pole of the axis of the earth."
The entire book, of thirty-six pages
in rdze, is full of interest to both sci
entist and layrran, and there is here
eiven full extracts from it, so that
th' re may be s en the McDuffie claim
end the deductions made by Ma.
Guthrie as to matters concerning. the
Magnetic Pole and the true North
Pole of the axis of the earth.
Dedicating to Daviu G. McDuffie the
bock and paying tribute to him. Maj.
Guthrie says that McDuffie was his
old familiar friend, a surveyor of Fay
etteville, that together . they spent
much time in the woods of. the Uppe
Cape Fear in hunting for. landmarks
to determine boundaries in dispute,
that in his opinion McDuffie "was the
greatest mathematical genius, the
most learned surveyor and the best
and most expert woodsman in finding
h-nlmarks" he ever met, that he says
this though he. the author, studied
pure and mixed mathematics in his
srphomore and junior years at tlu;
University of North Carolina unde
learned and distinguished professors.
Dr. James Philips and his son. Dr.
Charles Phil'ps. aul that his standing
was not the lowest.
In his close acquaintance he tells
of hearing McDuffie discussing the
subject of the Magnetic Needle in a
scientific way and that later at his
request more than twenty years ago
wrote out his very decided view's
concerning it, believing he had made
a Great Discovery, Maj. Gutlrie say
ing "whether v? -;v,T :
claim or not. 1 myself, am unable to
say, but as he is dead and
T must soon follow him to the grave
slso, 1 have deemed it proper to pub
lish to the v-n'-'d vv
a? 're-sons for the faith he had in him'
for his claim. He always i L. ...
that by his method of calculation the
variations of the Magnetic Needle
could be accurately and with mathe
matical precision calculated in ad
vance for any given time and place,
and it would be specially useful for
marine navigation in the calculation
an'1 ui n-ation of accurate charts f o
mariners."
David Gee McDuffie was a Scotch
Presbyterian in religion, was born in
Cumberland coun y, N. C, on May
1 . IS 1. and died at I S.
while in survey work in 1891, at the
HH oi .0 years. His wife, whom he
narried w hen he was 3 2. w Miss
Mtj McOueen. of ''umberland. S e
died on Nov. 26, 1902, at Fayette
ix. kjIi soli -.a j u.i M. - i.e.
great-randfathe. .Tn Mor 'p.
was a Scotchman, fought for "Prince
i ik. . . 1. 1 .e. at at Cul . I
after which he came o Cumberland
county in the early forties of IS 00.
c-e icl u.lie was the son of
Archibald McDuffie, youngest son of J
John McDuffie, tis imtbr having
been formerly Miss Rebecca Fee, of
F-yt tte ll 'in G or-r
fie, at one time Governor of South Car
c lina, was a second cousin. The fam
ily is one extremely connected in North
Carolina.
Ma-. Guthrie publishes letters to
him from McDuffie. setting oat that
be could answer questions proving his
contention as to the Magnetic Noed'e
no telling of the value to the gov
ernment of his calculations, that he
could not afford to give his discov
ery away, and take honors in place
of money, seeding information a- to
how to market his discovery. Maj.
Guthrie found no patent rights could
be obtained, that his discovery was
not patentable, that a result could
rot be patented. Whil? McDuffie was
trying to invent a ccmpass which
would in construction embody his dis
covery of the variations of the Mag
netic Needle he died and left the work
unaccomplished, after making the ef
fort. Having given these preliminaries
Maj. Guthrie's book continues:
"VARIATIONS' r,'K MAGNETIC
NEDIiE
it makes a complete revolution,. This
motion of the earth causes the mag
netic potes to appear to move fioui
Lat to V est auu rcvohe aroand th.?
poies of the earth, and it is ih.s mo
tion oi the earth that causes the &tar
sphere to appear to moe. These
ic bolu assertions to make now,
bince lor the past (Sou) years
astronomers attributed the motion oi
the stars to be caused by th2 preces
sion Oi the equinoxes. When Coper
nicus auvanced the theory that the
earth ami nut the sun resolved, the
only proof he coa.d advance was the
simplicity of the system and its con
sequent probability. The motioa of
the earth can never be made a matter
oi ocuiar demonstration. rlhe proof
that 1 propose to make is based on
observations made at different timej
and places upon the earth for the
kiat tl.ee hundred years or more.
"Anu firt the agomc lae, or uae of
no ariation, was at London in 1 J 5 7 ,
after which the needle commenced to
point westward, which it continued
to do until 1.19, when the western
declination attained its maximum,
which amounted to 2 4 degrees and 40
minutes, and since then the needle
has been slowly traveling eastward.
London is 51 degrees and 30 minutes
north of the equator (51 deg., 28 min.
and 40 sec), and consequently 38 de
grees and 30 minutes (38 deg., 00
min. and 20 sec.) south of the North
Pole, then, taking 24 degrees and 4 0
minutes as a tangent to the curve
(circle) that the magnetic pole is
making around the North Pole, we
have a right angle triangle with all
the angles and one side given to find
the side that will be the radius of the
its place
arise in
1). G. Mcniifr'' Discovery. Written
by Himself. A. D. 1S89.
"In the.se tiays when Nikola Tesla
and others are experimenting with
electrical devices to communicate
with the planet Mars, it will interest
scientific men everywhere to know
that it can be scientificaTy ascertained
and scientifically demonstrated w hy it
-ii -i ... v. . .
is tne magnetic neecue varies a:iu wny
it is the agoric line changes
i:p n the earth.
The following questions
considering the s")'ert viz.:
(1) W hy does the magnetic needle
stand North and South (or nearly so)
at all?
(2) At what does the magnetic nee
dle point?
(3) Why the magnetic needle doe-,
not seem to point at oe ob'eet?
(4) Why the magnetic needle points
due North at a certain place on the
rarth at one time, and does not con
tinue thereafter to do so?
(5) Whv the line of no variation for
agonic lie) changes its place upon
he earth?
.All c the above questions are im
portant, and so far as I know, the an
wer to tem has puzzled the. scien
tific world for ages, especially the well
krown fact that the line of no varl i
Jkn changes it' place upon the ear h.
No scientist heretofore has ever been
v-,ir tr fivp oven a nlausible reason
why this is so. but the
f.r red as a conclusive
of it.
Explanations.
years of careful observa
magnetic needle I have a-
what it points at, and
to vary. All the civ'il-
fol lowing is
explanation
"After 4 0
tion of the
ast discovered
w Visi t ra uses it
ized nations of the earth have em
ployed their most scientific men for
over three hundred years (300) for
the purpose, in part, of making thU
discovery and they are still striving
to find cause of the secular varia
tion of the magnetic ne die. I do feel
that I have made a gnat discovery,
especially w hen I see my own govern-t.-
r 5c? po-nr-Mg our isogonic charts
to the world every five years which
are but little better than those pub-
v; c r two hundred vears ago.
Causes of the Variations based on
Siieiitife Data and Observations.
"The magnetic needle points to the
magnetic poles of the earth. The
North magnetic pole is on the 7 4th
parallel of North latitude, and the
South magnetic pole is on the 74th
parallel of South latitude. The mag
netic axis crosses the axis of th3 earth
at ihe center of the earth at an angle
of 16 degrees, or within a few min
ut cf it
"The magnetic poles are fixed, as
much so as are the North and South
poles of the earth. The earth is
making a slow revolution on its axis
from West to Fast, and in 85 6 years
circle. And again Paris was on
line of no variation in
needle commenced to
ward, and attained its
1517 of 22 1-2 degrees.
assuming 22 1-2 degrees
to a circle, whoe center
Pole, and knowing that
degrees and 50 minutes
min. and 14 sec.) north
the
1S63, and the
point west
maximum in
Then again,
as a tangent
is the North
Paris is 4 8
(48 cleg.. 50
of the Equa-
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tor, and consequently 41 degrees and
10 minutes (41 deg., 9 min. and 46
sec.) south of the North Pole, we
again have a right angle triangle with
one side and all the angles
given to find the side re
quired which will be the radius of
of the circle required. By the London
calculation measuring from the pole
of the earth to the magnetic polo
amounts to 13.07'100 decrees; by the
laris calculation the amount i
15.73-100 degiees. There should be
no discrepancy; but for the present
taking the mean, which is 13 degrees
-ml 5 4 minutes, and this taken from
90 degrees equals 7 4 degrees and 6
m!nutts. Now, what is necessary in
order to find how long it will take the
rarth to make the revolution and at
the same time to prove that it does
make it, or that the magnetic pole
makes a revolution around the pole
of the earth? As above stated. Lon
don or Greenwich was on an agonic
line in 1657, and this being zero point
or the place from which longitude is
reckoned, Ihen. we will select, for in
stance. New Pern, North Carolina, as
a place which is 77 degrees West of
London. The agonic line reached this
place (New Pern, N. C), in 1840, that
.is, the magnetic pole had passed over
77 dfgrees in 1S: years, and if it
passed over ii degrees in lvj years,
it will pass over 360 degrees (or com
plete the circle) in 855.58 years. Or
to state it by a rula of proportion, it
would be thus: As 77 degrees is to ;'(.
degrees, so is 1S3 years to 85 5.58
years, or make a complete revolution.
(77:360- -183:855.58 years.)
"Jn the above calculation New Pern.
C. is merely selected for illustra
tion, for after many calculations foi
different localities, it will be foun.l
that 85 6 years i- the time required lor
a complete revolution of the magnetic
pole around the pole of the earth.
Put it must be remembered that
Greenwich will again be on an agonic
l ne in one-half" that time, or in 428
years, wMch will be in A. D. 2085.
That the sun and rarth are beth mag
netic is now admitted by all scientific
men, anel being magnetic must have
positive and negative poles. Put as
terrestrial macnetism has been so ful
ly explained by Gauss and others, 1
need net undertake to prove an ad
mitted fact that the needle is govern
ed by the same magnetic law that go -erns
the sun and earih.
(Signed) D. G. McDUFFIE."
"Fayetteville. N. C."
Ma'. Guthrie here gives defm tions
as to the compass, taken from the
American Encyclopedia, with notes as
to variations, anel then
roncluion in which he
wish that McDuffie was
his time when the eys
because of the Cook
comes to his
expresses the
still alive at
of the wr1 1-
and Peary
e laims,
and of
arc turned to the Norih Po
Peary's and Cook's claims of
reaching the North Pole asks: "DiJ
they, or either of them, do it? If so,
can they prove it by data brought
back which is sat'sfactory to scientific
minds," and continues:
Cok r"d "M'V.
McDutfie's
When an
particular
the circle
Pole in
North Magnetic Pole of the magnetic
axio, as McDuffie alse claims, is not
coincident with, and at the same place
on the earth as .s thj i . i jf
the Earth's axis? If, therefore, the
Magnetic Neeuie was th oa.y gu.ui
which Dr. Cook or Commander Peary
loilenveet, they may have ra.hcd in
North Magnetic Pole with its aid; but
then, it McDuffie is rignt in nis tiai.ai.
thy would still be a long way off
from the North Pole of the axis of
the Earth. And if tha North Mag
netic Polo in its 836 years' .ouraey
around the North Pole, which Mc
Dutfie has calculated from given eiata,
in making its revolution around th
Pole, describes a circle around the
North Pole of the Earth, the question
then arises, how can the actiial dis
tance troin the North Magnetic Polw
to the North Pole of the Earth be as
certained, except by McDutfie's meth
od of finding the length oi the ramus
of the circle which the North Mag
netic Pole describes, around the North
Pole of the Earth, anel Ly his method
of calculation finding its center, winch
would be, geographically speaking,
the precise North Pole of "the Earth's
axis? And neither Dr. Cook nor
Commander Ptary, nor anybody else,
except myself , knew anything about
discovery at the time,
explorer can stand at that
spot in the very center of
which the North Magnetic
its revolution describes
around the North Pole of the earth,
and not until then, according to Mc
Dutfie's discovery, he will have reach
ed the North Pole of the Earth. Com
mander Peary says in the first install
ment of his article published in the
January, 1910, number of Hampton's
Magazine, now just out, that:
"Cape York is about 76 degrees
North." ! had on board
fehip when I "arrived there all the
equipment and assistance which
the civilized world could yield."
"Cape York, or Melville
Pay, is the elividing line between -the
civilized world on on1 s's
and the Arctic world with its
equipment of Eskimos, dogs,
walrus, seal, fur clothing and ab
original experience."
"Ahead of me lay mv
dream, my destiny, the goal of
the irresij table impulsion which
had driven me for twenty-thre
years to hurt myself, time after
time, against the frbrid (North
no degree) of the Great North."
"Did Commander Peary stop where
the Magne-ie Needle re-istercd no va
riation, or at '90 degrees NorJi?' as
he himself says.
"If so, according to MoTurfi,? dis
covery (if McDuffie is right in his
clairr) Ccrrmaraer Pary did not
reach the North Pole of the axis of the
Frrfh. if b depned enti-ely on tha
Magnetic Needle alone; but he must
hae reached only th Mgntic T'o'e.
which, accordin- to M Duffle, is on
C e circumference, and not at the cen
ter of the circle whi b th M g'4'?
Pole describes around the North Pole
cf the Earth. Or in oth,r v. ords. is
the North Magnetic T o'e th erv
same a the North Pole of the axis of
the Itar'h If not. then, what is the
length of the rabbis of the oirie
around the North Pole of the Earth
vvbich the Magnetic Pole describes
around it as the Earth revolves yearly
around the sun, anel th Mgni-?
Pcle revolves in us continuous circle
in 85 6 years around th- North Pole?
Did Commander Pea y or Doctor
Cook either reach the very center of
"Dr. Cook's claims
ready re'ected 1 y th
have been al
scientists -f V
that polar circle?
ing to McDuft ,
of ay1'? of the
"Did Commander
was he abb; to take
Fervatiors in the
ord-Pole
For there, ac.
H t'T? North
Earth.
Peary take, or
astronomical ob
1 nr cont'i'i'iis
while he was
.Arctic daytime
r he says be d5d th" 17.
the top of the North Pole
of course, taking a s
2rapTi of the flag ir.
Could he do this in the
placing.
S. fkm at
an ? wa-;.
nlight pho'o
hat position?
dTyt:ni3 with
Copenhagen University nis cnosen
jurv to try his cac -an. re .....d
principally, as they say, because no
astronomical observations were sub
mitted to them, and if any such obser
vations were ever made by Dr. Cook,
none such have been submitted to the
ury of scientists for their examina
tion. Put what of the magnetic
needle records taken by Dr. Cook?
Does not this verdict of the scientists
show to an inquiring mind that the
Copenhagen scientists -know, that the
such instruments and aprbanes as
he carried with him to th North Pole
under eruditions thre exisfiT af the
time? When he stood at the North
fob. coi'b1 hr see the North Sta wifh
hi- natural ryes or 'h M in-Tr- i
ments. immediately above h:m. point
ing directly to th North Pole? Or,
cork1 be. or ei;d hp with such as
tronomical
v i
cucb
Km
instruments
rt the t
a
h -1
e. ?ko n'i keep
rcors of h' observations of
Vip declination- of the sn a-d sta-.
I so that an expert astronomer could
j . . rffVe at home and
i verify his observations hy a trnmi
jcal datf and mabeimtioal calcula
tions? Thpse are some or the i ies
tions whirh to the lav m'n re sug
(Continued on Page Six.)

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