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THE FARMER AND MECHANIC. 13 EUROPEAN WAR THROWS VAST TERRITORY INTO THE BALANCE possible Outcome of Great Conflict Now Raging Dis cussed by Dr. Henry McG- Wagstaff, Professor of European History at State University. S. It. WINTERS. Chapel Hill. Pt. 12. "Suppose the God of Battles inclines toward Ger many and Austria in the present figantio nfli t '.' .Suppose that Ger many, witli her unrivalled military vftW iency, ho!f. at the end of the war, the vital lines of both France mid' Russia in her hands? Kven Eng 1;md though unconqucred on the sea, would be fain to acquiesce in terms n.r her suffering allies that would -ave them the vital thrust. France .stands to lose an empire which for three-quarters of a century she has j.rt n building in Africa and Asia. Add Belgian Congo, combined with Ger- Cotton Warehouse Construction V. 11. Camp. Chief ot tin Mate Iieion of MarLet.s. During I'm- last two stored little o'.. .tor. been good since the 1111. Hut n..'.vf in a. have suddtnl droppe. years iarm rs Trices have large crop o month, riees 1 from iv. elve ninny's other African possessions, ana be German nation would possess 70 per rent of the area of a continent which comprises one-fifth of the land f the globe. "He vers-- the supposition: The al ius win! Germany will be .stripped of hci every colony. Already the lous'hty sons of Nippon have invested Kiao Chou, Germany's concession on the Chinese coast, plundered from China in the hour of opportunity and now destined to be similarly lost. Moreover Japan may safely be expect ed to take care of the Carolina and Lftdrones. Togoland in Africa has al ready been seized jointly by France and England, as also has German Samoa by the English. German East Africa and German Southwest Africa may be expected to fall into the hands of Bngland." In the foregoing outlined parallel, Dr. Henry McGilbert Wagstaff, pro fessor of European history in the Uni versity of North Carolina, set forth ihe possible results to the colonial empires when the final terms of peace in the European conflict have been dictated. Dr. Wagstaff is a life-long .-iludent of European affairs his Knowledge of European history is all embracing. It even comprehends the eourse of every rivulet in Europe as well ns an Insight into the deep seated movements that have shaped Eurpan history through all the years. The undercurrent which 'hurled the earring nations into the eataelysmic conflict is revealed in this enlightening interview from Dr. Wag staff. The interview in full follows: Results to Coloni.il Empires. "One of the interesting questions for speculation in the present colossal onfiict of arms now raging in Europe .is the possible results to the colonial empires of the contestants. True, only four of the warring nations England, France, Germany and Be 1 giiini -possess colonial dominions. Nevertheless, as in the history of past European conflicts of less tremendous Import, colonial interests will inevit ably play their part in the final terms ff peace. 'The birth of England's colonial as pirations dates from the beginning of her commercial rivalry with Spain Id the sixteenth century. Then Amer ican areas were the prize at stake. With Spain beaten and decadent after tne defeat of the Armnda In 15RR intended those efforts. Freneh en gineers have drilled wells and drawn water where there va.s none. The Sahara is retiring suilenly. Heads have been built that the Romans might have envied: and steel railways make even far Abyssinia tributary to French African commerce. In short French Africa is a country of solid commerce and prosperity. "Off the southeast coast of Africa Fiance acquired fci js9 5, by appro priation, Madagascar, an island larger than 1 ranee herself, with a popula-! tion of two and a half million. It was under the third Napoleon that France acquired her present valuable possessions in Asia. These consist of Tonquin, Cambodia, and Cochin-China all in the Indo-Chinese peninsula, and with a combined population of eleven million. Besides these France has French Guiania on the South American mainland and numerous islands in the West, Indies and in the Indian and Pacific oceans. Altogeth er she controls a colonial dominion in combined area eleven times larger than herself and with a population of fifty million. Belgium's Colony. "Valiant Belgium, by transfer from the personal possession of her king in 1908, is in control of the African i.-. i . . . v-ouKo, cl lermory eignty times her own area and with an estimated popu lation of twenty million African sav ages. This territory is in immediate contact on its eastern border with German East Africa a fact that may prove significant at the end of the present war if Germany is able, through the defeat or the allies, to force Belgium repentance for refusal of peaceful passage to the Kaiser's troops. Colonial Possessions of Germany. "Germany possessed no colonies prior to 1880. Bismark. the archi tect of German unification, in his early years did not believe in Ger many's attempting the acquisition of colonies. In 1871 he refused to de mand as prize of war any of the French colonial possessions, immod estly contenting himself with the levy of five thousand million fanes war indemnity. But the interest aroused in the exploits of certain pri vate German companies gave rise to ward 1880 to a definite colonial policy. Vitalized by the prospective tariff policy begun ry Bismark in 1879, German commercial interests decided that colonies could be useful. In consequence, by 1884 Germany had seized a number of points in Africa where her companies had blazed the way, in the southwest, the west, and the east. She thus acquired a scat tered African empire of five times the size of Germany Itself and with an estimated population of fourteen million. The Camaroons, bound in between French Congo and English Nigeria and leaning upon the eastern shoulder of the Gulf of Guinea make up about one-sixth of this. Togoland, cents or better to eight ents. The war in Europe has la gely cut off the export demand. Sixtv per eent of the cotton is consumed by Eng lish, French, and German mills. Hir own mills not buying mere than enough to supply their immediate needs, nor will they as long as prices continue to fall. Thev do not know s-p s rated by at 1 any other building !d ra:lr...id tra k : buildln sie-ry lm-,h. sides and -r i-tru- ted wa'h r b and vtith r proof, at whitewashed -n outside weather b-: tin ran be with gravel 1 0C t t from It feet frm s to be " e ! to be c-". .irdins spark 1 painted r r in bleu of d:rg, e'-rrugatid iron or sed; roof t. be oncr I r approved :omp-:tiori how much further prices will fall. This is all an argument for farmers to hold their cotton until the demand becomes normal ar d prices rise t at bast ten cents a pound, the average cost of its production. In every cotton growing community a farmers' protective credit and warehouse association should be formed to see that no cotton is sold below ten cents a pound. Commit tees should be appointed lo canvass the situation in each locality at v. nee. A list should be made of those who desire warehouse facilities with the number of bales each farmer will probably desire to have warehoused. In some places it may be possible to secure storage space in existing warehouses at the usual rate f twenty-five cents a month on each bale stored. Old buildings may be utilized if the insurance is not too high. If these structures do not suffice to warehouse the amount which wilt need be stored, farmers had better incorporate their associa tions. A blank application for in corporation may be secured by writ ing to the Secretary of State. If it is desired to form a co-operative or ganization application may be made to the Division of Markets for Bulle tin 225, which suggests a form of by laws. , The Kind of Warehouse to Build. In the present emergency there will not be (time to build a standard brick warehouse. Such a warehouse to store six thousand bales was built at a cost of fifteen thousand dollars this last year. This warehouse in cluded an automatic sprinkler system. One of the best warehouses in this State cost twenty thousand dollafl;, having an automatic sprinkler sys tem, a cement floor, and a capacity of 7.000 bales. Other warehouses to store 900 bales have been built for three thousand dollars. The rate of insurance varies from seven cents to three dollars and a half per $100 per year, depending upon kind of build ing and the protection on the premis es and in the town. The form of building" commonly recommended to meet the present situation is simply a shelter of gal vanized iron roofing or tar paper with open sides and no flooring. Scantling or poles may be laid down to keep the cotton off from the ground. If this shelter is Inclosed with a barbed wire fence nd is provided with six casks of water and twelve pails the insurance rwill be $3.25 per hundred dollars worth of cotton in fourth class towns. This wire fence, should be placed far enough away to allow the cotton to be removed from all sides in case of lire. A structure thirty feet wide by one hundred and . and an be t. d.s-C.'lll- for commercial and colonial domin ion. America and India were now the rizs to be won or lost. Successful hi the titanic struggle of the Seven Years War (1756-1763), with, with the Great Frederick of Prussia as lly, England emerged as the great '.olonial power of the world. This proud position' she has since retained, "o be sure the pearl of her possessions was lost In the war of American In dependence, and this was the day of franco's rejoicing, since to the result Hie had materially contributed. Never Ihelesrf England learned by the lesson "! in the. NaDOleonic wars she nar- on 1815 iaiiy indemnified herself. In sue stood the proud possessor of a lar-flung empire" that she has ajneo retained and strengthened by no bonds of a mutuaf interest be 'weeu its integral parts. Canada, ;,ew Zealatnl, Australia, South Africa, 'gypt. India, a thousand islands, to--iKhe.v with fortresses at the entry or rie.ss ot was attest the glory ot" her '-'-is. France Long a Coloniser. ranee, England's present ally. never relinquished her colonial inmons. Since 1815 she has quietly 'urn me edifice of her present col "'ihi power. Particularly has she -loevea the mastery of a great Monial dominion in Africa, opposite ' own door across the ilediterran in, an empire reaching from the or me Congo on the South to J'? chores of the Mediterranean on " north, and from the Atlantic, on n west to the valley of the Nile on 'v..sc. Sentiment and situation hinterlands of this territory, espe ' lally dear to France. It is the area -ln was once- Cartilage, then Roman . nn ince, then Visigothic kingdom '"II -Mohammedan Caliphate, then nu independent Barbarv states with nominal allegiance to the Sultan at -''"stajuinoplo. The French have n rouch capital and employed , uicii snius in making this moribund 'nil rj nVe ogoin. i.arge success has In flat and in the other they would be stood end. A more expensive form of building would be cheaper in view of the re duced rate of insurance which it bears. The warehouse which is com monly built by the mills is a struc ture made of claD-boards with a brick dividing wall between each compart ment. As a soecial concession in the present emergency the insurance comDanies uermit the comnartm i ts to be entirely enclosed with wood provided, they are separated from each other bv a hundred feet of free space. The rate of insurance is one dollar and seventy-five cents pc. one hundred dollars in fourth class towns The conditions upon which such rates may be secured are as follows: "Not more than 600 bales to be stored in any one warehouse; warehouse to be ita rcuj wii iiic liui Lliri 11 vi lilllfti i, . ., i j a ,i - I - T-Tr -mr r TWT t f T1 r IITIIIT"! 'i Till France arose as England's chief rivai65Si 5? 5!nch r)a.T?01eyJ0,r " twenty long will store five hundred "Jr""i vom and forty bales, two tiers deep "5t. iui w cbici ii ueiKiiuoi. i i i i.i v, i one lavcr uaif h v o u e i l mm - . - exerman outn west Attica, a great territory in immediate contact with England's South Africa Union. destroys the cartographic contour of hese possessions from the Zambesi to the Orange River. German East Africa, alone greater in size than the home state, with a long coast-line on the Indian ocean and extending west ward to the Belgian Congo, stands athwart the projected CaDe to Cairo railroad which wTas the dream of Cecil Rhodes, the empire tmilder. It thus breaks the continuity of English soil from the southermost point of Africa to the mouth of the Nile. Germany in addition has, in the Pacific. Dart of the Samoan group, together with the Caroline and Eadrone island (except ing Guam) purchased from Spain in 1899. Suppose! "Suppose the CJod of Battles in clines toward Germany and Austria in the present gigantic conflict Suppose that Germany, with her unrivalled military efficiency, holds, at the end of the war, the vital lines of both France and Russia in her hands? Even England, though unconquered on the sea, would be fain to acquiesce in terms for her suffering allies that would save them the vital thrust. In which case France stands to lose an Empire which for three quarters of a century she has been building in Af rica and Asia. This is truly an im perial stake and, i? won, would give Germany her "place in the sun," that latterly she has so ardently coveted. Add Belgian Congo to that: A logical deduction from the suppostitius premises. All these combined with Germany's other African possessions would give her seventy per cent of the area of a continent which com prises one-fifth of the land of the globe. "Now reverse the supposition: The allies win! From this premise we may reasonably conclude that Germany will be stripped of nor every colony.' Already the doughty sons of Nippon have invested Kiao Chou, Germany's concession on the Chinese coast, plun dered from China in the hour of op portunity and now destined to be simi larly lost. Moreover Japan may safe lv be expected to take care of the Caroline and Eadrones. Togoland in Africa has already beo4f seized jointly by France and England, as also has German Samoa by the English Ger man East Africa and German South west Africa may be expected soon to fall into the hands of England 1 virtue ot her control or the seas There they will probably remain if the allies dictate terms to Berlin and Vienna. But what boots the rolff of prophesy when the world trembles with the ague of war and (.rod seems to have hidden his face! "It remains for Americans to be profoundly grateful to the unseen Cod that whereas m the oast general wars of modern Europe, American territory somewhere trembled in the scales, m the present one a profound security is felt from Labrador to Cape Horn arut huiiiiiMcs t. con .n iu,t bss than one standard i 1. 1 .!.? .r in r..if buildings n.'t to t..;vi- .. eod'-n !oe- ut s antlinirs may be ;!.! on whirh to store ctt.-n upon an addiUon.il Charge f t.-n eenls; e.,,f I hi?. iv casks to each vvaiehoe t, l )t, filled with water and t. served Ay two buckets for cull : K : not 1 t than i wo 5 -feet do.:s. three l-et apart at tih etuis uf buiidsnt- more doors if possible; cotton stored on end. pib-d . herwie ; cretion of warehouseman. A warehouse built With two partments each 4 4 fet-t wide I feet long and sith a brick wail l -tween them will cost about J.'.mhi. The height would be ten feet and fourteen feet; the root" of each com partment could be made to ban to ward: the brick dividing wall. If the brick wall is left out and 'he compartments put a hundred feet apart the cost would be nine hun dred dollars less. The price of build ing may be higher or lower accord ing to the locality. If farmers cot.- innate laoor or material costs may be greatly reduced. Such a ware house would provide for the storage of 1,200 uncompressed bales of cot ton. The expense for insurance will be reduced where there is some fire pro tection. Bates for insurance in par ticular locations may be secured free of charge by a-pplying to the North Carolina Insurance Rating Bureau. Raleigh, N. C. Ioention. In the location of a warehouse con sideration should be given to possible differences in the cost of insurance and convenience to farmers and to others to whom space may be bt. Sometimes a farmers warehouse stands idle when something might be secured to pay expenses if thi build ing had been located in reference to the possible use of buyers. Tlie Co-operation of Bankers and Merchants. Before building a warehouse the advice of the bankers of the com munity should be secured to make sure whether loans mav he secured to the full extent of the value of the cot ton which is proposed to be ware housed. Supply merchants should also be interviewed to see if hey will accept a note and a warehouse re ceipt in lieu of payment and allow the farmer to keep the ownership until such time as he may adfan tageously sell it. With the ware house receipts as collateral the mer chant may be oble to stand off Ids until cotton may be sold. If the Interests are thus safeguarded, the merchant and jobber may later be able to realize upon their credits with out sacrifice. This is a time for all to stand together for the sake of maintaining value in cotton and the. soundness of our credit structure. A form of warehouse receipt rniuht e like the one given below: Raleigh, N. c 19.. Farmers' Warehouse Co. No W are h o use Ce rti ficat This certifies that the Fanners' Warehouse Co., of have this day stored in their warehouse compartment No bales of cotton and said cotton is in sured against loss by fire and is de liverable to the order of upon the surrender ot tins receipt ana payment of warehouse charges. Farmers' Warehouse Co. Bv No. Bales Marks Note:---Cotton will not be delivered except upon delivery of this certifi cate. If lost report at once to Farmers' Warehouse Company. In making a loan the warehouse receipt may be given as a eollatr'il. The note may have the same form us the usual promisary not1. The bonding of a warehouse is not required by the government for the issue of emergency notes. So bonding, while desirable for a large warehouse, will not generally be ne.--ssary for a small one. Many farmers who can "et along without credit may store their cotton on their own farms and save th cost of insurance and public storage as is frequently the custom in ordinary years. This cotton better be stored a few bales in a place, put on pole. or planks to keep it off from th ground and covered with eanvap8" tir paper, tin or boards. own creditors advantageously of the farmer A rnent fourth class town is of a store and several a e,t; ho u.s. s. CANNONADING IN NORTH KEA. London. Sept. IS. (2:20 a. .) A incg o le W-ekly lip.palli from Copenhagen says tin- rew of the ste-amiip Koidpolat chM-lart tly heard heavy cannonading Saturday outli of Fordcr lighthouse at ih t ranee of Christ inula Fjonf.