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THE FARMER AND MECHANIC. HARD TO KEEP THE FAMILY OF UNCLE SAM ALWAYS EMPLOYED Need for Comprehensive System of Labor Exchanges That Shall Embrace Whole Country Nineteen States Have Public Employment System l'nel Sam is responsible for a large family, which it is very difficult to keep busy. Its members are hard to control. They wander about from one place to another, in the vague hope of finding something to do. with no real knowledge of where work is to be found, or they congregate in great, unwieldy throngs in places where they think work must always be plen tiful. How to utilize them; how to know where to send them .and how to get them to go where they can get the work they are looking for, is a hard problem for the most conscien tious guardian. Uncle Sam is begin ning to study it in good earnest now; and when there is an inclination to blame him for not having done it long before, it is well to remember that he has had a Sreat task of setting his Industrial house in order, says the New York Evening Post. The question is not so simple a one as an easy and theoretical statement of the economic value of labor ex changes tends at first to make it seem. Students of immigration have been pointing to the fact that a great stream of people, ignorant of the ways and opportunities of our land, have been flowing undirected into our great eastern cities, and creating so cial conditions fraught with much danger. Students of labor and busi ness have shown that, while men are out of work and starving in one place industries may be paralyzed in an other for want of men to carry them on. Both have cried that the remedy lay in the establishment of a national system of labor exchanges, the immi gration reformers further asserting that the funds were at hand in the revenue from the $4 head tax on im migrants, which brought in about $4. 000. 000, of which only about $2, 500,000 was spent in the immigration service. There were many obstacles in the way, however. The head-tax reve nue fluctuates with immigration, .and can not be relied upon as a basis for the cost of establishing a vast sys tem of labor exchange and informa tion. The immigrants themselves are hard to direct. They tend to go to the districts where the people of their countries who have preceded them have settled, and it is difficult to di vert them. Most of the advance guard of the great stream of immigration flowing in within recent years had al ready settled in the East. The only hope is to control some current of new immigration, like that of the peasants from central Russia, and to get the early comers started out to wards the great farm lands of the Middle West, where they are really needed, and where thev ran lnoV fnr. ward to healthy and prosperous lives. Again, much of this "army of the unemployed" is of ranks of untrained workers, men and women, who have never been fitted for any one sort of valuable service, and who have littlo idea of what they want to do. Hern enters in the problem of industrial education as a companion puzzler to that of distribution. It is useless to organize a system for directing and transporting even verv willincr work ers to jobs which they cannot fill. One evu can be struck at immediately however. Among the drifting unem. ployed in past years there have been many men able to do some definite sort of work, but icrnorant where inhs in their trade were to be found, or unable to get them even if they di know. Here is a fault that can b eliminated. It would be a starting point of the labor exchange service now being proposed. Agencies through out the country would get in touch with men wanting work, and would begin to bring these two together. The work of the Federal Commis Kion of Industrial Relations is one o the most hopeful glearrus on the in dustrial horizon today. As yet, no much stir has been caused bv th in vestigations which it has be en nniMlv carrying on all over the country. The commission is gathering its evidence and forming its conclusions, however. It is the body which is planning to recommend a government system of labor exchanges, With its authority and information, it gives promise of being able to abolish much of the waste and inefficiency in organization that has been clogging the wheels of the American industrial machine. CJctting Men to the Grain Belt. This year -Uncle Sam took up in a practical way the problem of bringing idle inn wanting employment into contact with jobs. Hundreds of thou sands of men eaeer fnr wnri- hova during the summer, been directed to the great harvest states of the West. The first influx was into the lower wheat belt of Texas. Oklahoma. Kan sas and Missouri. As the harvesting of the record crop of 900,000,000 bushels progressed, the workers, to gether with new arrivals from the East, moved northward into Iowa, Nebraska, Minnesota and the Dakotasl After the threshing of the wheat, corn cutting began in Illinois, In diana. Kentucky, Ohio, Michigan and elsewhere. Many of the harvesters e ater started on the late summer ploughing for winter wheat. Alto- getner, an army or nan a minion men has been busily and proritaoiy en Graced in carneriner the treasure, at the same time pocketing wages esti mated at 150,000,000. In the meantime. Contrress has been on ci I Af! n nr o Villi TMAtr 5 r i t rr f Ar rx-i government labor exchanges, and the doing an interstate business, or ac rornrJmont rf T oi-v hoc Von nvort I PPntinS' Wnrl'TTlPn for shinmnnt r ing its influence in other wavs to solve other States, would be reauired to me prooiem oi unemployment. Secretary V illiam 13. Wilson, of the representatives of employers and em ployees, who would aid in determin ing the policy of the Bureau, as well as see that it was impartial in dis putes between labor and capital. The Bureau also would have power to establish free labor exchanges. Each employment office so conducted would be required to send a daily re port or business to the clearing house of the district. All State and municipal labor offices would be re auested to co-oneratp with the Na tional Bureau, and to adopt uniform methods and regulations, besides sending in daily reports. Included in the proposals are rules and reg ulations prohibiting false representa tions, requiring notice of strikes, pro hibiting fees before service is ren dered, and otherwise safeguarding the patrons of the offices against ex- ploition. Every private employment agency Denartnient of Labor at Washington. bad neard much tne past winter of unemployed in Eastern and Northern cities, notably in Philadelphia, New York, and Chicago, and, at the the earnest desire of the President, had been planning to place the machinery oi the people in a novel fashion. A Dracticable nlan is now beinsr tried out through the information division of the Departmental Immigration Bu reau. ------ - . r vii.jvvi v4v- a v. .v v a liiuxiiiio. x lit; l.ilv.l fully, Secretary Wilson conferred with was established that practically. every Postmaster General Burleson and en- employment agency in New Jersey listed his co-operation. The outcome violated the law for Keeping adequate come under the jurisdiction of the Bureau. The testimony given at the hear ings of the Industrial Relations Com mission showed that in the State of New Jersey, for example, in nineteen out or twenty-nine agencies the law was persistently violated as to plac ing girls in positions. The Prison Reform Association, in one case, res- sued four girls recommended bv an employment agency to a disorderly house, and subsequently had the three men conducting the office sent tn prison for eighteen months. The fact was the novel scheme of utilizing for the first time the United States nost offices, practically enlisting the postal employees in a nation-wide emnlov ment agency project. Placards in bold black twpe announced: Harvest Hands Wanted in frhc 3fiddlc West. records of people sent out to work. tsimiiar unsatisfactory renditions obtained in New York. There the motive of many of "the nrivatfi Pm- ployment agencies lay in the fees for nnding situations, and they care lit tle about the living conditions in the positions. if a man leaves a iob "Persons interested in obtaining ouic.kl o ' .1,0 iUl lilU vuii. ui una ivinu siiuuiu appiy io me agencies. OlllCeS OI ine States named. Tt will lAhnr oonrliH-Tio TV,,, v 1, be necessary for those desiring work are unlike those anywhere else. One to defray their own exnenses tn tbo place or employment." There fnllnw ed detailed appeals from several states These notices were sent broadcast to 8,500 first, second and third class postotiices throughout the United States. The results were immediate. .Men wrere soon reporting to the va nous agencies. Some came in th passenger coaches of regular trains ine majority arrived on foot or on estimate is that there are always at least from 50,000 to 100,000 unem ployed persons in New York wViii the number of available positions is variable. Business hnusps nri tVio, city officials have co-operated with the charitable societies to find work for many of the idle. The employ ment of the New York Association for Improving the Condition of Vi Poor interviewed a large number of n i , , - . - v,ii I iv v,iu;iuj(cis ui lactones, the break beams of convenient freight stores, and offices, secretaries of va- or milk cars. Freierht trai ns nrrivpd I riant; trndo rniinno Ac-, - -i . in t?(fnWheat countr' loaded with 100 came generally known that about ui . i enreacn. mere are many a third of a million men and women young fellows in this army of toilers in New York must have work Mavor who intend remaining in the West, Mitchel, with the co-operation of the where there will be a chance for them Chamberlain, Street Cleaning Corn to forget the dull months of idleness missioner, Commissioner of Charities ... "ooiciu uiiiea. anu tne i ommiss nnpr r College Men as Farm Tandtj. I nreaniy.prl n free n yi i a i n n i - i o inuutviuai cm uiuy- An important nart in t ho wnri- of mpnt pvoVmno-o harvesting was played by the young Learning to Prevent Unemployment men from the colleges. Noti Ie "eed tra help were one step that was taken in promoting Sent nv t Vl o rXinarTTinTiT T V a I , -I 2. ,. .. fjuuiuuiig --- j ...v, "'"-"l ajauui iu .hi unueiHianumg on tne nart of th every university and institution of public as to what can be done here- n2!f-iie2lS!;dliSt?." a"er al"S the of the prevention v - ecuciauy musn ineir 01 unemployment, the most imnor school year shortly before the cutting tant service that could be rendered of the wheat besrins. and finrJ tnom. I a noin.tni.i ereu- selves without Wrk. the grain harvest mi'de ISto thS'SfrcuSSiS; o" 2 000 nrfSZr"? n.OI?el.ess unemployed at the v : V "a-,lv"1- in some municipal lodging House. This cov- denrnkl dFaWn fr0m thG StU" frfd ?0t nly their Phical Testimony from scores of kwo r- r'7 'T.t1' UUL Lneir. llves, . - i- .. i v utinuii, cum ineir reason? for t-i em ployers, trade unionists. and public officials of long expert in th"e VSBtKlZ If tiip inH t i with various phases years, proving that immigrants some- TTniVS SfJJ?"?? proe before how manage to keep their jobs when United States Commission on Tnric. r,D,ni V Juua wnen trial Relations forced the realign because intlW0?Z tnat the distribution of labor is hap- wages and displace the wnruin. r hazard, and belief in the need of gov- of higher standards at th fw" ernmental direction, thronirh nrrQ JkZ:J? -.s -at tne. first information as to where men are need- ner cen of tT f"? It Tne S0ISnlton decided to New York less than two months Th recommend the estahlishm national labor .v,h!ini f7 rQ n; r1, ? L we.re natives and had . " - , - w...lt) .i. iccm. ii ul unueu into ne metronolic im ment of Labor at Washington. ply on the bare chance that f hS It V9 coon I lc-n : ! I . , , . . ULC LIld.t ine - u.ewurcicu in tne ci- wouia De laKen care of fort to determine thp adantahiiitv of nfn, . n "... laborers in one class of employmeni th had Ihe positions 'been JSE to nnnrtrtunit oo r. f onv... i I r . . . ut?tn iortn : r.,.vU ut alluluCi LuttL I coming. At least 62 ner mnt solution able to do hard wort t . v. 1 w v m ir-. r n per cent were permanently unfit for manual labor. a I AVinnt 9A A hit-or-mis nli,v t o r " Jrr?w fcl ascriDed their m v mm tA l l V I L M. LI X 1111 I I I I 1 m I 1 r t T r rm te I . a garment worker from th rit fntn T-Tt w 1UK- Per , , , "J I au uccn u rowil OUt Of wnrt an iron fnnnnrv rr unmn I . . . wut wutk 7 1 J ru oecause or ine seasonal charartpr f vironmpnt of cron nvTo;ni I . , . ovyuai -iii.rd.cier or o.-v lijoiuw ouaui, certain industries: 1 2 nor rnt dropped because of industrial m . . ThA Tnnctrioi fT" " Z : .. "Vc,"w .I crni because Of - - - A.v.MAAum AkciaLniii. I .in mm s. I infill n ni rstrn l . . i uoi-j mi a-naTTiivJS. vjl IV a npr fn Sinn arp now iepiicci'nr v. ; I , , , . . J v1 -eni tn. vTv M TT"" v""u- oia, me great Doay or them beinn: un V. l"uus..uy wnicn ine law snail der thirty-five years. About 4ft r,o Z1 Ior. tne collecting of this in- of the men were more than sixtv lormannn it to huiot nn nA i i , ... . i wiii anu uioti l Bu that nothing can avail short of a na tional employment exchange, such that proposed by the Industrial Rela tions Commission. Fully 25 per cent of the working people of the United States, or over six million men and women, it has been estimated, are idi from one to three months of each, year. The least wage loss on thij basis is $200,000.00. a hint of the price of our national neglect of th employment question. ARMY OF INDIA IN SHOWKK OF KOMiS no practical. nermanpnt could be reached until the entire em ployment problem had been thor- ougniy analyzed. To recommend bution generally. A National reau of Labor Legislation, with a cen irai Or nee at Wa.ohinatnn nnH cent nad been skilled wnri-m.n Twenty-three per cent had been idle more tnan a year, 31 per cent for from one. to six months, and only 9 , , r--'- u...v iiuiii uurr. iu sia iiiuu ins, ana branches in New York, Chicago, New per cent for less than a month Or Pnna Ron Vwnn 3 j I . . Orleans. San w w f m V Sm m omer cities extending from coast to coast, with a clearing house for each of the several districts into which tne country would be divided, is pro jectea. Data regarding the labor marxet in various localities win The most significant point w Q general lack of training for any work. No less than bO per cent claimed no ability for any skilled tasks. That is the keynote of much of the trou ble- . .o adequate solution of the un employment question can be had with collected and published in bulletins, out the co-operation of educators and in iunKiisn ana otner lanniappc Q- frequent intervals, classified so as to meet the eye of all who want work as well as those in need of work-r The proDosal for the anDointmt of an advisory council to the Na tional Bureau and to eacn of the dis trict clearing houses is a vital fea ture of the plan. This council would oe made up or an equal number of the organizing of a better system creating skilled workers to' make the best use or tne rich supplies of raw material in the country. Nineteen States now have of public employment system, in ad dition to eight cities. Ohio was th first to establish a free 1a change, in 1891. " Census returns make it apparent Remarkable Scene of Enthusiasm At Fighters Are Welcomed at Mar. cille. London correspondence in New York Herald. The censor having at last permit ted publication. Douglas Crawford the Daily Chronicle's correspondent at Marseille, telegraphs this interest ing story of the arrival of the liidmn troops in France: "With undisguised delight flashing from their eyes as of burning coal, the Indian troops landed here. From the little Gurkha and his winning smile, through the ranks of Bengal Lancers, the Punjabi and the Balu chi, to the giant Sikh, they were mag nificent specimens of martial han hood. Everyone was vyln wit! his neighbor in ardor for the cause of the King and Emperor and his allies. "Let us put the doubters right. Not an -Indian has set foot in France but realizes the reasons for the greatest war of all time, and the motto of these troops now, as a thousand years ago, is 'Death.' "In almost as short space of time as it takes to tell the decks of the ships of the fleet were alive with sol diers, and in a few hours the trying work of disembarkation was com pleted without a sdlip or accident to the troops, who literally leaped ashore, fighting men to the last ounce. They were hard and fit, ready to go straight from, the quay to th fighting line. Not a few of the Sikh.i (lithe black-bearded giants) were deeply concerned to know if I the lght the war would be over before they would get at grips with the enemy. "Never has the port of Marseille witnessed a scene so kaleidoscopic a that presented by the defiling of th thousands after thousands of soldiers down the seemingly numberless gang ways along the quays lit up by th brillian sunshine. "Here were Sikhs, there sturdy lit tle Gurkhas the finest infantry in the world; the darker Hindoo with n merry smile lurking in his distinctly Mongolian eyes. They at once cap tured the hearts of 'the French sol diers. A wondering crowd warmly shook hands with the Ghurkas and wished them the best of luck in the exercise of their prowess against th GermaTte. Further removed were the J warlike Baluchis, while at anjther 1 4. . Tfw 1 ... quay tne iunjaDis were busily en gaged in grooming their mounts. "All the troops were in khagi, with a green or white interwoven band in their headdress to distinguish one caste from the other. The truban, of course, is worn by all Hindoos and Mussulmans. "The white officers in command are the highest type of soldier, drawn from the best families of Great Britain. In them the men have im plicit faith. One important fact that must not be lost sight of is that thi great expeditionary force from the Orient to the Occident isn't only an army in name, but an army in being, thoroughly trained according to the most modern ideas and equipped with all the first class machinery of war. "Everything has been brought from India. Cannon, rifles, intrenching implements, sleeping rugs, tents and a hundred and one necessaries of tha Indian Army, down to the prayin? mat. "The scene here at noon v. hen tha troops marched through to the dif ferent camping grounds was one not to be forgotten. Every man. woman and child in Marseilles turned out. The numbers were swelled by eople from the surrounding- c jntry dis tricts. The streets were seething masses of highly excited humanity. The excitement of the highstrung Latins rapidly spread to the Indians, and it was a unique experience to see hundreds of martial warriors, from bearded men whose hair wan shot with gray, to beardless yorths. lump a yard high for sheer joy. "The officers looked on with lenient eyes. Old women fought with men for the honor of shaking hands with the bronzed soldiers, whom thev im partially named 'Anglais' and 'Hin dous.' Young women and girl threw sweet-smelling flowers in their path, pinned pink roses on their tunics and turbans, and even stuck them into the Indians' lonr hair. In response dark Eastern eyes beamed great content, and rows of marvel ously white teeth flashed from laugh ing lips. "The enthusiasm of 'h populace became ecstacy when a band of swarthy Gurkhas struck up the 'Mar sellaise' and played it enchantingly on a weird collection of goardlik- in struments. "By evening all were encamped in picturesque parks with rocky heights, reminiscent of their faraway hills, around them, and in the moonlight the people of Marseilles stood on all adjacent roads watching with unrig ging interest .the strange Eastern rites of these magnificent fighting men from India,"