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THE FARMER AND MECHANIC.
GERMAN GENERAL STAFF LAST WORD IN WAR EFFICIENCY How The Kaiser's General Staff Selects and Train Tt Members and Organizes for World Conflict in Times of Peace. m ' I ft. . t . 1 r -m . . j,,,,,, .inmiMin ... rw xorn World, from hundr of ntw- - In the pray dawn of a mornirfg early coveted distinction that can come to ia August a million gray-clad soldiers a young German officer in time r,f f nun the vast military camps of Ger- peace. 1 n;iny lurncu mnr uuuks 10 tne rising a montn later Lieut VAn TIar)n fcun and, marching westward, stepped round himself standing before the Mir., the stage of the world's most ap- Chief of the General Staff in an office nl!ing tragedy as the curtain of mist in the great buildim? in lriir, i"1"" f"t a iic-sin- me uireciing organization of i.ur vanguard of this mighty host the German army. j,r. ss. tl forward across the plains, first "Lieutenant" said the great man a M-n-en of cavalry, a glint of light "you are about to enter upon a se Mnking here and there the scabbard vere course of training which is in ,,f a .vubre or the point of a lance, tended to fit you in time for the high th' n the artillery, followed by the est command. Let me give vou a mussed ranks of the infantry. He- tew words of advice. You must re hind this curtain of steel, stretching member that it is not alone by devo in endless columns into the obscure tion to your technical duties that you 1 stance, vague as phantom legions will attain your hierhest in the dust-laden air, came the am- To your military fitness you must add munition wagons with their deadly tact ana discretion. While you will freight, the supply trains ready to be called upon to make great exer- furnish the familiar food in a new tions in the study of the theory and ami terrible environment, and the practice of military science vou mu?t ambulance corps, whose red crosses I not neglect to keep your physical arry in their shape the message of Powers up to the mark. Further- i), a( and in their color the message more you must train yourself to hp f war. a quick and untiring rider, you must "The Day" prophesied by seers, keep your eye in practice so as tr ie sunt; by poets, longed for by soldiers, able to obtain at a glance a correct tvlanned for by statesmen had come view of a military situation and it at last; the German army, the most may serve you well if you are a good formidable military machine ever de- I araugnrsman and a practical teleg vised by man, had thrown its mailed raphist." gauntlet in the face of Europe. . This conversation was the first step In a lew nours this great army was in an arauous period of daily instruc regard to each nation everything about its-constitution, administration, the state of political parties, finance, intellectual culture, agricultural and mineral resources, forestry, manufac tures, supplies of food and fuel, rail ways, postal service, telegraphs, tele, phones, roads, canals, and th books, pamphlets and magazine articles re- latins to miiitarv affairs The captain's next step was his ransfer to the historical section of the Great General Staff. Here a minute study is made of the history of war. livery campaign m examined not onlv from material available in books and printed reports, but also from the original diaries and journals of offi cers, i.pon the facts contained in these innumerable records psmvs are compiled which deal with everv con ceivable question concerning army or ganization ana the handling of troops, the employment of the various arms and the strategy of campaigns. une branch of study alone remained before Capt. von Herder could emerge as a completely trained officer. This was the map division, or, as it is gen- erauy called, the Topographical Sec tion of the Great General Staff. Here are produced the finest maps in the world. Many of them are on such a large scale that every road, every foot path, every bridge, even every house outside the limits of a town, is indicated. 1(1 OF BELGIUM SEiSJSTilS Albert's Heart is Touched by Generosity Shown His Peo ple by Americans HELP NOW OR STARVATION Seven Million People Without Money or Work Face Death From Hunger This Winter Unless Much Relief Comes uuickly; Newspapers Are Appealed To London. Oct. 31. ( 5:20 t iving Aioert, of Belgium, has asked bo at the outbreak of the present tne American people to help fttd his war Capt. von Herder found himself starving people during the coming at tne rront, his vast knowledge and winter. Mis message, wtitten under experience at the disposal of the com- hre in the battle before Dunkirk and mediums tjeiierai 01 one 01 me armies uan&miiieu 10 me American eommis- which was flung across the Belgian sion here for relief in .Belgium. fl- Irontier. Iso doubt he will erive a lows: goou account or nimseit unless a stray bullet should in a single instance- reduce to inert dust the ca- yaoie maiviauanty upon which so much training had been lavished. Now For the Groat Trial. Regarding the military organiza- 'I am informed that American of ficials and citizens in Belgium and England are working to save my peo ple from the horrors of the famine which now threatens them. It is a great comfort to me in this hour of sorrow and misfortune to feel that a . .1- r ii ii t . I : v. i j AA . . . .. .. I " 0 : - k II vv T Uwin lii thaf o mailers wnicn it tion of which Capt. von Herder is the great-hearted, disinterested people i ( ...... ... "Y" w Irni . tQff V,Ai,Ti "'" Wi VJtrn- prouuet tne real test of its efficiency directing its efforts to relieving th 1. k.I 1 ' r fi trior ir tnAlr Annn r n I f ill I Th IT Vn nil I n Lrn Aiir I I , u .ul uuu, p-- a in war nas only just begun. Battles distress of the unoffending civilian t.. ie irnaueu u luit xou oi numan me " i" ul" '1. xo. S ler nave been won and lost, 1eath has population of my country u,u ... v, iMMuU :; -"-"V u- wLyr reapea a ncn narvest, the wounded "Despite all that can be done. th couM be crushed and its homes made Lieut, von Herder to learn his duties crowd the hospitals, captives by the suffering in the coming winter will folate. "ij Pe"vcam.?Sn m barrac.k?'in.tle thousand have been disarmed and be terrible, but the burden thev must The l ire Test of Efficiency. f iriS general fotart, in sent into exile, cities have been de- bear will be lightened if my people l. was at this point, following the trnye'i ruin and disaster have over- can be spared the pangs of hunR,r tirs. sharn order of "Fire!" that the v J llULa taxen tne peacetui multitude; yet if r l i iir iiriii irif i ;i mi shtvipp i i -,,-v t TTT1 i . . -. 1 ' VV WP T"fko n 1 n ThA n o -' c? nckTio r r I 1 1 : . r-i A machine to the perfection of which army corns arriving at -the front rL- VV: eViai" erpr1" i:..rm:.nv hns for half aT.ntnrv n e - JI" c?5Pf a"n inf at Ane tTor Per" tlon that Teutonic valor, backed by v ' -w wv i i i v 111 ill iinuii nr t r rv n on ir ii rvH tr. i it . 4. 1 1 J T 1 J1 A t..vt i..ur.,n of thn ofnnlonr.v r.f t i a t rrV -o---- - ii wah, as me woria nas learnea xo l lri:i J v hi 1. 1 i.iif .1 rT Trrn cunn Man n .,11 v. : i , . v-.t.wl ?.n )nnrfl,l!),lQ arrtnn lvj . oLl lIlilL science CHU SUUUIV, WOU1U Murht energy and gold tne troops under hre in the trenches, prove irresistible to any conceivable Thn mSn n,,Wi ), familinr f mile"lonS columns of ammunition epnosition, two months of war have J ? f.V?"2 J?ll steadily pushing their way up sown many seeds of doubt in the field v. wwara tne hghting line, of small of confidence. ua, KuiiMiutuuu bodies of uhlans feeling their way in of the Panama Canal, the medical and advance of the army and sending back sanitary achievements which made to headquarters news of the enemy's that construction possible; we know strengtl. and of the state of the roads that in relation to the objects it has and bridges, we are reading of the in view the Standard Oil Company is work done under tne direction of men one of the most efficient organizations like Lieut. von Herder, who during the U ! w"rld- , A1 days of peace have been working out In the dread domain of war the Ger- all the problems which arise when the man v.enerai man represents ie iusi German army goes to war ,n,ir. f o Arr.,0 Von Herder's Ordeal. 1 to the King of England by the Ger- EIjECTIIIC AVTOKS NKAlt TItKES. More Precaution Should Be Taken to Make Contact Impossible. A writer in the Scientific American who was on hand at one of the re cent accidental electrical deaths feels that many of these family robbing in cidents could be easily prevented. It was the old story of the 2000-volt line After four years of work with the not being a sufficient distance away man Iwnperor occurs a passage which General Staff, von Herder now a from surrounding trees, barns, etc. throws a strong and dramatic light captain, since promotion comes quick- The unfortunate victim was caught u;.n the irrevocable character of the ly to a man who has been through the while engaged in the work of trim- l.lans of the German General Staff special course received an order to ming a tree, the 2000-volt line being once they have been set in motion, rejoin his regiment. This reassign- substantially in contact with the tree. MI am orry." telegraphs the Kaiser, ment to regimental duty is part of the Aside from these occasional and too "that on technical grounds my mobi- general policy or the German military frequent accidents, the writer has ligation cannot be countermanded, be- authorities. Its object is to save a noticed that there is a grounding at cause your telegram came too late." ' good man from becoming a mere office many points where such wires touch What is this machine which, once solder. treetops; sparks may often be seen the starting gear has been put in mo- To a promising young officer who passing between the wires and the tion. cannot be checked even by the has just passed through the rigors of branches of the tree, powerful hand that threw In the a General Staff service the return to with the knowledge that higher clutch? Of the soldiers in the ranks the routine of regimental life is at poles are more expensive and that un I need not speak. They are much the first extremely irksome. The monot- derground conduits are very costly, same as other soldiers, as strong, as onous work of drill and inspection, of the writer would still suggest that brave, as much subject to the violent route marching and minor field tactics every municipality granting right of Influences of combat; they are perhaps Is a dull employment for one who has way for a high-voltage line should re better trained than other soldiers in recently been engaged in studying the qUire such wires to be separated from those exercises which arc proper to higher branches of strategy and the an surrounding objects by a distance the profession of arms. larger questions of military organiza- of not less tnan 8 or 10 feet. This may A careful estimate of the actual tion. mean the use of higher poles ttt parts strength of the German army ap- But after a few years of drudgery of the iine or even lengths of insu peared in June in the Infantry Jour- faithfully performed Capt. von Her- lated cabie, but the cost would be nal. under the signature of Major der got his reward when he was de- Dffset by the consequent freedom from Charles Miller of the Seventh In- tached from his regiment once more line loss danger of breaking wires, fantry. He gives the real military re- and appointed to the General otaff, and still moret jn the saving of val sources of Germany, trained and un- this time for actual service with that uabje civilian lives. The public ought trained, as about 7,000,000 men, of distinguished body. He now had the to reaiize that the same wire which whom 4.000,000 have at one time or opportunity of putting to practical use only be 3i6ths of an inch in another done a continuous period of the lessons he had learned during his diameter and look very innocent, is service with the colors. The total years of study. He was attached for pae of transmitting many kilo number of effective troops available duty to the staff of the general com- watts instantaneously to a human for service In the field armies and in manding the Seventeenth Army Corps, body and comprises, in fact, a high mobilized garrisons is 3.000,000 men, and it became his duty, aided by three power death-dealing electric gun. Two of whom about 1.300.000 would he other starr omcers, 10 relieve me se- thousand volts at only one ampere is classed as second-line troops. eral of all anxiety during manoeuvres equivalent to the force of more than to arranging i u.o twn horse-oower: aDDlied electrically The higher organization of the Ger- as man army is divided as follows The troops, the prompt and accurate tQ a small portion of a body, it acts Commander-in-Chief, the Military transmission of orders to regimental much hke a bullet as far as its power Cabinet, the Ministry of War, and the commanders, the procuring and com- ff j concerned. i rf'.l t '.AnitMl CnT rnilin I 1 Lil uuaoiuic iuui uinvu . . ,ncn m nn na ono-inoi cava It is upon the officers and especially cerning the theatre of operations, tne tfcat foolish huntsmen constitute a upon the higher courts that the at- supply of maps, the keeping or jour- menace to high-tension transmission tention and curiosity of the world are nals and . diaries, the drawing up oi iines, ecause with the cowardly now centered, for it is in the hands of reports on engagements and tne exact- braver of nonpublicity they shoot at these men that Germany has placed ing details of reconnaissance jorw. &nd hU lhe hfe and Hne-saving in the training of its troops, the prepa- Five years of this kind of du y ana sulators. So far has this menace pro rations for battle, even the determi- Capt. von Herder found fel5 &a? ceeded that special steel-clad bullet- nation in the last resort of the vital with his regiment once " - j Droof insuiators have had to be de- question of War or Peace, had not long 10 wd ir:lfr signed. The repair of such a high r Training a Staff Officer. ceived the final dwtinction apart from teg.on Hne .g nQ child.g play and the fit us take a typical case, that of advancement m rank which can come foreman takes considerable responsi- iMit. von Herder, now an officer of to a German csfii? bility when he sends back word to the th- Great General Staff. Twenty mejot to the Great General fe. er.nouse that the line is clear. "rs ago at the end of a hard day's The captain s duties now a" ghould a single lineman remain on orK at the autumn manoeuvres the an enureiy """J; r mav the pole when the 13.200 or highei 1'utenant was summoned to the tent years he was attachea to voltage supply is turned on, instani " the colonel commanding his regi- be called the Intellig e"caeffDePafm death is a probability. -Lieut, von Herder," said the of the Great General Staff His i jork said Olim 1 'T f.rcrt.oii1of X'mi oil VOlir here .Was U "Ji;l . I Dlotripitv Hut n pvorv rk i shall propose your name for ranging an enojmoM Jtrles with precaution for safety." It is not safe att ,u hnient to the general staff." mation nr10mhtCpU0 to have a loaded gun pointed at a .. Ujth his head in the air and the which Germany mignt possioi citizen: it is no safer to expose or triumph in his eye the lieu- nerseir at mtellisence De- him to the bare or insufficiently insu rant saluted, left the tent and re- In the hies of "l, Vi Vounds of lated "electric gun." The ues of elec- if only it is and applied; and spells with its frightful consequences of disease and violence. "I confidently hope that the appeal of the American commission will meet with a generous response. The whole hearted friendship shown by American people at this time always will be a precious memory. (Signed) "ALUKUT" The American Commission for re lief in Belgium, an otheial body rec ognized by the various governments. is tne only channel inrougn wnicn food can be introduced into Helgium. By its association with a committer in Belgium it has an efficient agency for food distribution. 11. C. Hoover, chairman of the commission, today issued an appeal to American news papers, in which belaid: "We have received reports from members of this commission vh- were sent into Belgium. Their re ports show that there are still some 7,000,000 people in Belgium. In many centers the people are receiving an allowance of a little more than three ounces of flour per capita daily. "Our experts calculate that to avoid actual starvation Belgium must have every month a minimum of 60,00 tons of wheat, 15,000 tons of corn. 5,000 tons of peas or beans, and a imited amount of bacon or lard. All his will cost $4,000,000 or $5,000,000 monthly. There is no money in Bel gium, lhe wnoie creait machinery has ceased. Eighty per cent of the people are unemployed. "A plan may be devised whereby such Belgians as possess property may give obligations to pay when the war ends, but even if we could realize on these obligations we mun still have at least $2,500,000 monthly in food or money with which to buy it. "During the past week we have re ceived and expended in emergency food $600,000 and yet this is only four days supply. The problem is im mediate. The Belgians are helping themselves, but they can do little. The British and French are under such strain that they also can do lit tle. Besides these nations, together with the Dutch, have a million re fugees on their hands. Americans must feed Belgium this winter. Ther never was such a call on American charity and there never was a famine emergency so great, "Will you. therefore, in the in terests of humanity, open a subscrip tion among your readers, ear-marked 'For the sole purpose of purchasing and transporting food.' Kvery dollar so raised will be used to purchase food in the United States." Used "Ground Hog" Machine. "ineci his comrades. Whatever feel- Partmn;"V n o doubt s gned in the tricity is entirely safe n f disappointment may have reports, some no doubt signea "! -,v transmitted ""rneu in their breasts, his fellow stiff, forma, mbu . j information, misused it has no mercy others hastened to give him their der con taming cla. sifted no f k"od wishes. He had been chosen constantly Kept up Siler City Grit. James C Smith, of Route 1. last week threshed his wheat crop of fifty or so bushels by means of an old fashion "ground hog" machine He was unable to get the thresher he wanted last summer, and so he waited and did his own threshing with the above mentioned ancient machii e. A remarkable capacity was uemon strated recently at the firs', perform ance of a new locomotive bought by a Western road. It hauled at a rate of 14 miles an hour fully loaded 50 ton gondola cars to a length of one and six tenths miles. The train had j to be started with the help of other locomotive? to avoid pulling out th drawheads.