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THE FARMER AND MECHANIC.
GROWING MUTER OATS III SOUTH Every Farmer Should Raise Enough To Feed Work Stock r 1 r ronion ot Tear -Even' enough -VYasningion, u. u.t vet. 31. southern fanner should prow oats to reeu ms worK stock during at least a portion o fthe year. In ad dition to furnishing feed grain at less cost than it can be purchased, fall sown oats prevent the washing of the GOOD ROAD SHOW. Sixth soil by which much fertility miently lost. There winter oats in the though tnis worK snould be done at once if good results are to be obtain ed. According to specialists of the Cr-itcd States Department of Agricul jure, oats sown in the Southern States during October or the first half of November may be expected to pro duce at least twice the yield of grain ubtained from spring seeding. Winter grain may be sown on land which produced a crop of cotton, corn or ou wpeas the past summer. If this land has not already been plowed, it will be better to make the surface soil fine and loose with the disk or drag barrow than to'delay seeding by plow ing now. Better results are obtained from sowing with the drill than from broadcast seeding, though if a drill is not available sowing the seed broad cast on well-prepared land usually results in a good stand. If the pre ceding crop was well fertilized, 100 to 200 pounds of acid phosphate will be all that the oats require this fall, though a little nitrate of soda will help supplied with nitrogen from the growing oi cowpeas or some otner legume. A top dressing of 00 to 100 pounds of nitrate of soda applied hen growth starts in the spring will greatly increase the yield. The variety of winter oats most commonly grown in the South is Red Rustproof, Appier, Lawson, Hundred Rushel, Bancroft and Cook are selec tions or strains of Red Rustproof which are said to be . particularly valuable in some localities. The Ful ghum is a promising new variety which matures a week cr ten days earlier than the Red Rustproof, and usually produces as much or more grain. As the kernels of all these varieties are large, from 2 1-2 to 3 1-2 bushels should be sown .to the acre. The smaller quantity is sufficient if the seed is drilled early on well-prepared land, while 3 bushels or more are needed when the seed is sown broadcast late in the season. The Winter Turf or Virginia Gray is a very hardy variety which is valuable for pasture or hay production, but which does not yield as much grain In the Southern States as the . Red Rustproof. On account of the small Fi.e of the kernels, only 1 1-2 bush els of seed of this variety are required. M'LKN'DID SUCCESS OP A FAMILY OF IMMIGRANTS. nnual Event In Chleairo f, December 14th. New York. Oct. 21. The agreirat- onUP,lnVL0f payers 'urftsh fe outlook for the guidance of local road and street officials. It is nessary, nntHif0re' th,at such omcials be thorl oughly posted as to the relative merits and local applicability of the different "lo-ieriajs or which roads are made, the method . their construction, and the necessary to build them. 7hls &what the Good Roads how is for. The Sixth Annual Show, which SliL ! held in connection with the f merican God Roads Congress vi.!? faso the week of December 14th, is designed to bring together under one roof all the different varie ties of material and machinery used in buildinsr ninricrn rrmAa o ,i - . . vwo ami m i and streets employed in equipment NORTH CAROLINIANS THE METROPOLIS IN will discussions be in of local offi- Roads Show the past rive Tn the current issue of Farm and Fireside Dr. A. E. Wlnship writes a fine little article about John Austin and his wife, Emma, who forty-six years ago came to this country from England with their four sons and set tled on a 160-acre farm in the Rocky Mountains. Austin had been a mill worker and he and his wife scarcely had money enough to come to this country and take up the 160 acres which the government at that time was willing to give any settler. Of the subseouent success of this family Doctor Winship writes in part as fol lows: "Once established and the market gardening scheme on its feet, John divided the 160 acres in halves, kept SO acres and gave each of the boys 20 acres. They all worked the whole of it, but kept the expenses and in--ome from each lot distinct. - "1 know Mark Austin well; he is one of the eminently prosperous men in Idaho, lie furnishes sugar beets fer eight of the large factories along a line of 400 mile.s of railway raising many of the beets and contracting for the rest. He is a prince among the business men of Idaho. "The other three boys, Thomas, Villiam, and John, are cattle kings in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah, each at tho head of a live-stock com pany, two in the sheep business one bad 00,000 head when I saw him in ln. One is president of the Wool blowers' Association of the ihter inountain region. "The business interests of those four mighty men are interlinked though tiiuneially distinct. They run their va.st business schemes as they did their 20 acres each, when they ran the v acres as though it were one mar hm garden, but they knew the profit f each 20 acres, and divide it. They atill keep those 80 acres together and 'part. Each of those four men has a family, and each has done by his sons "hat the father did for him." 2 T I r . is ire- x ne practical knnw pp-p in Kv tv, I ..ill it . I. ' - O j-v m V-A UJ IW3 a oiiii unit; in uisueL'iion or t hpci. fan t nJ uuu Ktates. supplemented hv thp the convention hall The money of the taxpayers is at stake in road and street building, vast amounts of it has been and is being wasted through lack of knowl- eue oi materials and methods and equipment on the part cials. Wherever the Good has been held during years, immediate improvement has been noticed. The information gain ed at the show and the knowledge of methods gained at the sessions of the convention, are equivalent to a liberal eaucauon on the subject of road and street improvement, and can be ac quired in no other practical way. The Sixth Annual Good Roads Show will be held at the International Amphi theatre, Chicago, December 14-18, in cennection with the Fifth American Good Roads Congress. With a stated fund the question often arises whether it will be better to build a high-class road or street, or a greater area. The difference be tween $5,000 and $10,000 per mile on country roads or between one dollar .1 A. - aim -vwo uoiiars per square yard on city streets, involves the question of doubling the length of the improve ment with the money available. In hundreds of communities in those states wherem uch money and study have been given the road and street improvement during the past few years, the knowledge gained by high way officials at the Annual Good Roads Show has enabled them to de termine what was best in materials, methods, and machinery, both for present and future economy. This year the Sixth Good Roads Show will be held at Chicago, II., in connection with the Fifth American Good Roads Congress, the week of December 14th. A noted State "Highway Official says: "Great sums of money and nu merous political and personal repu tations are annually sacrificed by Highway Officials, State, county, township, and municipal, because of lack of knowledge as to how to con struct good roads and streets with reasonable economy. They do not know what they need, or what will be most available in material and equip ment; so they go ahead with the policy of ignorant waste, which is sometimes called by worse names." The information gained at the An nual Good Roads Show, and the con ventions of the American Road Build ers Association does much to over come these conditions. At the show the official sees and can compare the various materials and devices . and methods used in street and road building and can select such as-may be most available and economical for his community. This year the Sixth Good Roads Show, connected with the Fifth American Good Roads Congress, will be held at Chicago, the week of December 14th. R. S. CARRAWAY. New York. Oct. 31. The Southern women in New York, including many former North Carolinians, will hold a benefit at" the Cohan Theatre on the night of November 20, the proceeds from which they will devote to the double purpose of aiding the soldiers wounded in the European war and the farmers of the South whose cot ton has depreciated in value. All the money raised will be expended in the purchase of cotton cloth, cotton cloth ing and bale cotton for manufacture into hospital supplies, all of which will be turned over to the American Red Cross to be sent for use on the European battlefields as a neutral gift. CiOVKILNOU OF (.lX)K;i ritcns iiKDUcnox COTTON CRKGK "The cotton situation is not as seri ous as it is made out to said Roberv L. Steele, of Rockinsrham. who spent the week at the Cmn.i f-fr.tei in North Caro cotton, that is, can. The trou farmers further CONSISTENCY OF CONCRETE Ijack of WHICH FAKMF.KS WILL UK PROS I'EUOl'S N EXT YEAR? Water As Detrimental As Lack of Cement. For the foundation and walls of buildings,' enough water should be used in the concrete so that it will flow to all parts of the mold with a small amount of puddling and spad ing, says the Cement World. For columns, beams, floor-slabs, the mass should have a quaky consistency such as will tend to flatten out of its own weight when piled. The mortar sur face of floors should be mixed with sufficient water to make it work easily hut an excess of water should be avoided. Concrete blocks, sills and lintels should be mixed just as wet as possible with the block machine em ployed. Blocks and sills made of a mixture wet enough to be quaky when placed in the mold win be dense and watertight. Blocks made with dry materials are porous, lack strength and present a dead appear ance. It must always be remembered that the binding quality of cement in concrete depends upon a hydraulic action between the .cement and the water in which each plays an equally important part. The lack of suf ficient water to complete this action is herfore as detrimental as ihe lack of cement. Parm and Fireside says: ''Here is a safe bet: The farmer is jng to make money next year. What inner? Whv tl. rtn. uhn n ans it ''it this winter'." all Mr. C. E. nected with city and one men in the Railing, formerly con the Hotel Plaza in this of the best known hotel mptronolis. has srone to A0v,vil1 where he win xaKe cnarse of the Battery Park Hotel. He is ac companied by Mrs. Railing. mixing pleasure with business. "I am selling my cotton and am receiving a fair price for it. The cotton ques tion doesn't need national legislation. If the State Legislatures of the va rious Southern States would take up the matter collectively and simultane ously and pass laws prohibiting the raising of the full crop next year the matter would be threshed out in short order and the price of cotton would increase from three to four cents a pound within ten days." Mr. and Mrs. Marcus Stern have announced the engagement of their daughter, Miss Helen Stern, to Mr. S. Whitlock Lipinsky, of Asheville. No date has yet been mentioned for the wedding, but it is expected to occur sometime in December. Miss Stern is well known in society circles of the Bronx and is wealthy in her own right. Mr. Eiplnsky is a prominent young merchant in Asheville. c. i. Wright, of Asheville, general manager of the French Broad Manu facturing Company, was in New York for several days of this week, stop ping at the Endicott. Mr. Wright says that business is rather quiet in his vicinity and that he looks for no immediate improvement. A. M. Watts, well-known business man of Charlotte, spent several days at the Hotel Aberdeen, attending to business matters. Mr. Watts has made a careful study of the cotton problem in North Carolina. He said: "What the farmres ought to do and what they are doing lina is to hold their all of it they possibly ble now is that the South, in Texas particularly, are flooding the North Carolina mills with cotton, receiving only 7 1-2 and 8 cents per pound. That is hurting not only the Tar Heel farmer but all business in the State. If the farmers further South could only be persuad ed to hold their cotton business throughout the South would im prove wonderfully." E. W. Biffinger, prominent naval stores man of Wilmington, is spend ing a week in the metropolis on busi ness, staying at the Hotel York. Mr. Biffinger is more or less a' pessimist concerning business in the . eastern portion of the State, saying that con ditions there were far from normal. Mr. and Mrs. L. L. Jenkins, of Asheville, who visited Richmond dur ing the bankers' convention, later spent some time in New York before returning home. Miss Lola Jenkins remains in New York for .the winter to continue her musical studies. Mrs. L. C. Wallace, of Salisbury, has been'passing the last few days in Gotham, staying at the Hotel Ma jestic. Mr. and Mrs. C. C. Jamison, of Charlotte, were at the Park Avenue Hotel for a stay this week. Mrs. C. A. Fulton, of Fayetteville, is spending a few days in the city, stopping at the Hotel Wallick. Mr. and Mrs. R. G. Gordon, of Asheville, have arrived in the city for a few days' visit. Mr. and Mrs. Walter Salisbury, have been at for the past several days. Mr. and Mrs. S. R. Harrell, of Kilford, are among the North Caro linians stopping at the McAlpin. Tar Heel buyers in the city this week included B. Sykes, Fayetteville, Herald Square Hotel, and W. J. An dreds, Raleigh, Herald Square Hotel. North Carolinians at the various Broadway hosterlies during the pres ent week included the following: Grand Dr. W. P. Reaves, Greens boro; C. E. Hood and R. Jarrell, Sr., Goldsboro, and G. S. Escott, Charlotte. Herald Square L. D. Potter, Wil mington, and L. W. Buck. Charlotte. York W. L. Thoxley, Salisbury. McAlpin F. D. Buck and F. A. Thompson. Wilmington; D. H. Mur phy, Asheville, and L. H. Clement, Salisbury. Murray Hill P. A. Higgins lington. Hermitage J. E. Shepard, ham. Wallick rA. A. Capelles, Wilming ton. Thresa A. Samuels, Asheville. Flanders L. C. Misenheim, Ashe ville. Latham J. M. Brown and E. L. Charles, Winston-Salem. Marlborough N. 1.. Latta, Char lotte. Imperial T. N. Webb, Hillsboro. Aberdeen J. T. Bostick, Laurin burg. Normandie W. T. Cole, Durham. Atlanta Constitution. Governor John M. SSaton Saturday urged upon the prison commission of the Stat' that next year the cotton acreage of the State farm, which is under the supervision f the prison commission, he reduced, and that food products hv raided in plac of cottin. Th following letter was sent to tho prison commission: "Gentlemen: In view of the present condition repardine the production of cotton, and of the fact that in your official capacity you produce large quantities of cotton on th prison farm, I desire to suggest the desira bality of limiting the amount of cot ton planted next year, and in place tbereof that more food stuffs should be raise', on tbe prison farm. "It is m understanding that if a larger quantity of food stuffs should be raised, it can be utilized and an expense of the maintenance of the de partment be thereby lessened. "If the same amount of cotton is produced next year as was in 1914, and if it be true that the cost of pro duction is approximately 10 cents per pound, in my judgment the price that cotton will bring next year will be less than the cost of pr oduction, and therefore it is to the general advan tage of the l otton producers of the Southern States that thiy limit th amount of cotton for 1915. "I simply make to you this sugges tion in order that you may take it under advisement, and shall give to it such weight as the conditions with which you are familiar shall require. "I am, with high regards, "Very truly yours, "JOHN M. SLATON. "Governor Powell, of the McAlpin Bur- Dur- RAYMOND POI.VCAHK. France's President, Raymond Poin care, was born at Bar le Due, in France, 5 4 years ago. lie comes of -good bourgeois stock, with the ad vantage of an excellent intellectual heritage, as his father was the lead ing scholar at the Polytechnical Col lege. Paris first heard cf him as a doctor of law practicing his profes sion in her midst. In 18S7 he was re turned to the Chamber ot Deputies as Republican member from T-a Meusc, since when he has been actively con nected with politics. He has served his country successively as Minister of Agriculture, of Public Instruction, of Finance, of Foreign Affairs, as Pre mier and now as President. In him tact and personal magnetism are corn bind with a clear, precise, powerful intellect. As an orator he is sober, yet eloquent; in matters of law ho .has few equals, and his ability for administration amounts almost to grenius. In his analysis of his own character from his handwriting, for President. Poincare is a keen graphol ogist, we may find a key to his char acter: "Tastes aesthetic ana prac tical, combined with lucidity of thought; a hard worker, leaving noth ing to chance; too much inclined to give way to impulse, which should bo checked by an effort of will. Inclined to believe in the supernatural; good natured, but a little shy." During a visit to Russia in August, 1912, he first learned of the Balkan treaties. He immediately foresaw the possibil ity of their plunging Europe into war, and it is perhaps partly on this ac count that during his Premiership and since his election to the Presidency he has been so ardent a supporter of the three years' service bill and has advocated so presistently the military preparedness of France. Directly war broke out in the Balkans in 1912 ho worked strenuously and successfully with Sir Edward Grey to preserve peace among the great FuropVan na tions. From the days when he first made his personality felt as a Deputy M. Poincare was acknowledged to bo a strong man. Therefore it is a curi ous anomaly that he should have been elected President of France. For since the time of Marshal MacMahon in 187 3 the representatives of Parlia ment have seen to it that no man of strong personality should slip through their fingers to the Elysee. Whenever a figurehead of their choico has shown signs of developing into anything stronger political plans have usually been laid to bring about his resigna tion. This is precisely the procedure President Poincare has been subjected to. No President has ever been so popular save among the Socialists, yet in Paris he has been attacked by politicians and newspapers with a virility of vituperation hitherto un Daralleled even in France. Much was hoped and expected of him not only in France but in all Europe. It was the general opinion that so powerful a personality and so able a statesman would probably survive the .-eemingly paralyzing effect of the Hiysee. This opinion has been fully Justified anil the French republic can congratulate itself on having so wise a captain on the bridge during the present hurricane. Monday's catch of shrimp was un-3 of the highest oT the season and it took nearly all niht to et things ready for the morning shipment to the markets. The shrimp industry has been one of the saviours of South port business and although for a tim after the start it was thought of very lightly it has grown until now it is a matter to be fostered so far ?.s reve nue to our city i5 concerned.