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Established 1877. RALEIGH, N. G JANUARY 19, 1915. VOL. C. NO. til. DEVELOPMENT OF RESOURCES THE NEED IN NORTH CAROLINA Running a State of Thirty-one Million Acres On a Produc tion of Eight Million Eight Hundred Thousand Acres of Necessity Means a Tight Squeeze. IJION u. kutij-:ii. .v-iley Heights Jan. 1G.- J like this ; , h.'cuiiH1 it is prophetic. As I ;..'; out over the far reachir,.; stretch ,.: :i:iproducti country I can sec , things. No, brother, that is a v r 'iir gurss. Not dreams of the im ; i.-.ity of spac and of the poetry of ji.,-. fovcM. and that kind of romantic (i' 'iires. that 1 see is cold ai.d figury. .. . j.ies when it is in piles, and when 1- ',i ..- not jingle it rustles, for it is ! .tn not thinking just at the pres- that the proves were the first tem pi nor f the souh of the breeze i:; ;hf pine tops, nor of that dine, . r-dhable as it n.ay seem, but of the re-edged material things. the U: i you count in dollars, and bales bushel.-. ib-re is a block of five thousand 4. r-s of land about to enlist in the ;- o ve e of the State. When the tax ,t -.v .-.' rs looked the tra over the li t tinv they put it down for a few i"u :m acre to the common con tribution. When the next assessment is made that figure is going up, and by the time this improvement has ! vii completed and men are at work it, the property making it produo thi:ig. and shelter families and taking e of the w:nts of mankind the tax i: will pay will be several times what r. h.j-i bHn in any year of the past. Let us say that its contribution to th" State and county revenue will be thr -e time what it was. It will be fr more than that much, but it is v.'i. to figure in slnall vnits rather than big ones. HE DEALS WITH PRISONERS AS IF THEY, TOO. WERE MEN One Swallow Does Not Make a Summer, But Sin a: Sine's First Month Under Warden Osborne Makes an Im oressive Showing. Carolina is going to be a great deal bigger than it is before the end comes. The only place on earth where the taxes do not increase all the time is the cemetery, and if any of you think North Carolina has the makings for a grave yard you have to guess again. There is not a single item calling for public money today but what is going to call for more, with possibly some minor exceptions, and while i am in a confidential mood I am going to add that we are all going to clamor for more taxes. We are only begin ning to build good school houses and good roads, and good hospitals, and to take care of all public matters. We have thought that the State is limited in its ability to provide for the things it would like to have, but tha is a mis take. The State is not limited in its ability to pay, but in the development of those resources that in time to come will pay liberally. In our present situation the ques tion of taxation is a mighty pressing one. But when the nve undeveloped acres of Cumberland county are join ing with the one developed acre to help pay the public expenses we will see where the trouble has been. We are running a State ot 31,000,000 acres on the production of 8.800,000 acres, and as long as we try to do that it will be a tight squeeze. At just the age when the average man rich in honors and money begins to plan a life oi" en.; e Thomas Mott Osborne.-a graduate of Harvard and a man of affairs, equally well known in business and political ci xes. has ac cepted appointment a? ''den of Sing Sing prison, say.-? . , in the Philadelphia North A me. For many years the name ,f has stood for everything one ro nvouL Tn sons:, drama and t. V it has served to a ccentuate the drea and dangers of prison life. And not without just cause. For its prox imity to the nation's metropolis of crime, New York; its abnormal popu lation of first offenders always the hardest to handle and its unfit phy sical condition have given it a record replete with troublous times. Only a year ago last July the in mates mutinied and set lire to the shops. A few months beiore tnat tne man who then was warder .et. it nec essary to carry a loaded pistol when in the prison yard. Yet on the after noon of Sunday, December b, just a week after he had taken office, Ward en Osborne assembled all the prison ers in the chapel and before saying a word to them asked every guard to withdraw. As yet no man justly can assay the ultimate worth of the hour which followed an hour of frank speech between one free man and 1400 men who will be on the level with him." Now, he had ordered away the guards that he might discus with the prisoners fifteen almost revolutionary North Carolina and Pennsylvania. Let us do a little comparison. Penn- confined for crimes -ranging from sylvama is a btate somewhat less ib pocket picking to murder. In corn- size than North Carolina. With two mon with a- majority of those who and a half million acres less than have given thought to the great prob North Carolina Pennsylvania has lem of nrison conduct, always we North Carolina ha a land area of J three and a half times as many people have contended that the first need is r.l. .'), )i)f acres. f that amount on her smaller area as North Caro- annointment of honest, high-grade i. V. ::.'0' is improved, or just a shade Una has. North Carolina has as much men to take charge of prisoners. And '' ve a quarter of it. undeveloped resources as Fennsyl- while it is too soon, to estimate- the -Now, suppose we could improve the vania, but Pennsylvania has develop- value of this "longest step yet taken uii'r three-quarters and make it pay ed more. Pennsylvania's bigger pop- jn the advancement of the new pen V. ...-. 1 A . ? . 1 I . 1 j . . t -a 1 i.ii'"" nines as mucn taxes as u uoes. i uiation nas carried tne ctate aneaa ology," it is the duty of every person Wh.it would the State do with all the I faster. Therefore Pennsylvania has a interested in the betterment of men "'y much bigger tax Income. Pennsyl- ami conditions to know something of incroacM? Productive Power. vania pays to the counties for thz an hour which may, in years to come, nue tne legislature is rigunng out support ot the public schools over t,e remembered as mothering a new & w.iy to Increase the revenue of the seven million dollars a year, and the epoch. r.ie is tne time to stand nere on counties ana towns aaa a lot more to Twr wppku nr. or to this occasion th'so highlands and think about the that. Pennsylvania pays another mil- Osborne informally had visited ln?lius that come from increasing lion a year for the support of the nor- the prison and talked to the inmates. '.r.e productive power or the-iana or mai schools ana other special schools Afthat time he said to them uie -?tate. inis part or noice county oi tnat cnaracter. 'ennsyivania gives "Our new system will be founded on A.n mi irom i.umuenanu. since, uiv tne neaun uej.artment over a minion the true manhood of every man here t-'-n-iu.-j was taKen. vvnen tne census a year. Pennsylvania gives tne nospi- an(j the correcting of wThat have been count wa: made Cumberland had tals three millions a year, and to the your mistakes and weaknesses of the 1'.000 acres of improved farm lands, insane hospitals over a million. The ,..ct rpil ' cH1i iri vprv mnn omp fid 18,000 acres of unimproved and prisons get a million. The homes and thing which can be appealed to a improved lands, or more than five institutions get over a million. Pub- sense of manhood, fair plav, a will-;u.r.- of unimproved land for every he printing gets close to half a mil- Inness t0 be on the level with a man ir oi improved land, ow suppose non. ine state miutia runs ciose to 'hit the r 4.1.000 acres could be mp.de three-quarters of a million. f' p-y three times as much tax as Pennsylvania wrould feel poor if it they pay now. What would be the had to pull through on less than mjii t i ' i i i 4. , ....3 i- !,:.-, .in. . i j. U".wucikj ---- . !." ". -oum wuum w umi, imw.un uu-ui.-, x yi in TO cha e in the ruleg SUggested by the .,;,U, T 7: ... 'u,"Atu,,M-V:d"ut n"L ,JUU5 taU Ulg Golden Rule Brotherhood, the Sing ; .ne nenau- at trie present writing a ueas iNonn Carolina. gi organization modeled on the Mu i .1 V. Ifthri.m n - . r -.--.-c-,'.4'e. 1 . I t I I ? i , r I 'nnntrli-n ,nn V. r, c --v. Y.Artrvl a I "wiiiioiiii, n uv i r ii lino jlj ka, jl viiiic,! i umu iiao juui c J ic , ''ii.r'.et of Hoke and Cumberland. Mr. and the people are developing the re loiin.on can tell how to increase the sources of the State, and the re uses of the State so that there will be sources pay the taxes and never think Ji want of money, for he has had a about it. The care of land that raises wide experience. lie has taken this tobacco vvorth a hundred dollars will I lout county land, which when he got pay a dollar taxes more cheerfully P d l about two or three cents an and more profitably to its owner than ' te tuxes, and he has made it so the acre that raises nothing and pays hat it producer, almost an average of three cents an acre, for the one makes bale nf cotton and sixty or seventy the money to pay its bigger tax while "labels of corn to the acre. On that the other digs up the tax from the Mt'd now he pays probably from five pocket of the owner and the payment ' twenty times as much tax on the of the small sum is a dead loss. .o re, and on some of it I venture he Because Pennsylvania has over bays fifty times as much tax to the eight million people utilizing her re- v s when he got it. Mc re than courses that State has finer homes, nut he is raising about eight o nine finer schools, finer churches, finer hunilrod bales of cotton a ye.r on roads, finer public buildings, bigger 'bis land, and employing a lot of peo- libraries, and everything on a more bl vho also pay taxes. Senator expensive and convenient scale, b.bnson has shown a couple of '.hou- Pennsylvania does not have things ' ii tl neres of land how to increase its more expensive and convenient be- t'lxes with profit to everybody con- cause it is a wealthier State, but be- 'rit,i. The proces.4 is simply in cause it has more people developing fiaki?.; the land productive. the natural resources of the State. In Not t'tiliiiyr HcMui-ces. 1850, when Pennsylvania had the Nf.rth Carolina is like a boy who same population that North Carolina growing too fast for his clothes, has now Pennsylvania collected taxes n.e State i. making progress so rap- to amount to four and a half million "y that it can not keep up with its dollars. The Siate had more resources daily expansion. It is growing, but it then than now, for in that time she H not developing its resources fast as exhausted a great many things, onou-n f(r nH wants. To get more 't she had nothing like the income tuxe we want more land brought into because she had not the peoplep to l't(luctive condition, and v want it utilize 'the natural resources. And j-nfre soon, for I am going to break a tnat is exactly the situation with JdUe bit of news to you this morning. t.K- !'vuuf of the State of North1 (Continued on Pase Sixteen.) tual Welfare League in the Auburn penitentiary. It may be remembered that under the name of Tom Brown Mr. Osborne once spent a week as a prisoner in Auburn, in order to tes for himself the accommodations and treatment there accorded. Important Change Asked. The most important change asked by the Sing Sing prisoners was that they might be permitted to discipline themselves, without initial interven tion of warden or keepers. Their re- j quest, in part, was thus couched: "We ask that the system of discip line be materially altered, and that the executive committee of the broth erhood, sitting as a court, shall be allowed to examine all minor cases of discipline and determine, if prac ticable, the nature and extent of the penalties to be inflicted. In the words of an outsider who was present, "Mr. Osborne replied that he was fully in sympathy with the suggestion, and that he would carry the idea further and allow the brotherhood to decide all v reaches , of discipline, with appeal, where the jus tice of a decision was disputed, to the warden's court, which is composed of the warden himself, the principal keeper and the prison physician." As Frank Marshall White says in the Outlook, "Even so short a time ago as a year the suggestion on the part of the convicts in Sing Sing that they be allowed to try one another for infraction of t h. p-i.-oo rubs v. ould have bf en regarJ'd as u n impudent ebullition of hu:.i..:" Yet, .;ee how .-wife i1-- i r pons of even the ragged remnaot of a let ter nature to the spirit of confident--' ! For one of the chief requests made ! the prisoners was that the beds in th dormitory the former chapel, where the over-low from the cells i accom modated, and the most comfortaMe 0 in the prison to sleep -W- . first to those in unites who ar-. mg from heart trouble or epilp sy . who are crippled. Needless to say, this was gra nted. Indeed, all but two of the brother hood's suggestions weie agreed to by the warden, and the.-e two were taken under consideration and probably vvill be granted. Hereafter, as a result of that jn lour s straight talk betwen varden and prisoners, Sing Sing inmates may visitors on any Sunday or holi day. They may write and receive a-s many letters as they choose, and ac cept small sums of money for tobacc and like "luxuries." They mav accept shoes and sweaters from friends on the outside "though, since gray i- the fashionable color here," added th- new warden, "you will please stipulate gray sweaters!'' In a word, sixty minutes of thai Sunday afternoon served to set in motion in the most famous prison in this country changes which may have a lasting effect upon. crime and crim inals everywhere. That brief inter val marked the passing of a prison dedicated to the barbaric sj'stem of punishment by retribution and its re- dedication as "a hospital fcr diseases of the soul." This rich man who is investing his years of success in larger service to humanity believes the present system is wrong in proceeding upon th the ory of revenge. Recently he said : "A very few moments of serious consideration will show us that in do ing this the law undertakes an im possibility, and an impossibility which tends to bring the whole system into disfavor, if not contempt. "It is absolutely impossible for any human being for any number of hu man beings to weigh and determine the guilt of each criminal by the mere facts of his crime. It is still more im possible to gauge the amount of crim inality in this one as compared with that one; these are things which transcend the powers of humanity; they rest with God alone. "Who can determine the exact amount of responsibility which each one of us carries? Wrho can estimate the inheritance, the early training, the effect of environment, the in fluence of others, the results of infore seen circumstances, in order to find the exact amount of real blame de served by the perpetrators of each and every crime and the relative amount of punishment it would b3 fair to give to each?? So, as this is manifestly impossible, the lav.- prac tically ignores the whole psycholog ical problem, and confines itself al most entirely to the crudest possible set of facts in each case. But it is happens that the crude facts are the. least important and the psychological facts are the most important in de termining the real guilt of the crimi nal." To illustrate this, Mr. Osborne points to two of the noted criminals of fiction Bill Sykes in Dickens' "Oliver Twist" and Don Jose in Meri mee's "Carmen" the one a hardened ruffian vho, after murdering his mis tress in cold blood, would continue a criminal if set free; the other a weak willed fellow who, if released after stabbing Carmen in an outburst of passion, would return to his first lov and settle down to a law-abiding life. Each is a murderer; yet, as Warden Osljorne says, "to place two such men in one and the same category, to deem them guilty of the same crime, is to shut our eyes to all the facts of hu man nature, while to mete out to them the same punishment is to be ridicu lous as well aa inhuman. Yet under i r ! f 1 . r (Continued on Page Sixteen.