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RALEIGH, N. C FEBRUARY -J?,. 1915. VOL. C. NO. M. DURHAM COUNTY A LEADER IN EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS Its Schools Models of What Can Be Done In a Short Time From Small Beginnings State's Entire School System Undergoing Marked Change Teaching Things Helpful In Real Life E SHOWING BT CORN CLUB BOYS HOX JL BUTLKK. 1,....uti, Feb. 20. I have talked a Td i? about the resourcees and V-v'f !iiH oC North Carolina in the i.. . ii ypnrs. The other day in Maj. . J lit 1I 1 lUH:t W T LV.ll lO .r h' schools of Durham county r it to the subject. half century that I havoc the hull' century that I have r.i -ira things in this life I have slto-i this theoiy --that when a I'ftijjis to improve you nave 1 1 ' says the fundamentals must always bo the three Its. reading1, riting and rith nietic, he goes far enough to say that the fundamentals can be supplement ed by as many as possible of the oth er things that will help to equip men and women for their work in life. Results From Corn C.'lnlx-. The branch of school work known u.s tho corn club seems to be one of the features of Durham oountv school i -.it ': man j..,.-..;1 loOK on inr i 'iin.it- '.-. won. as he keeeps up that improve-,-,; i; m encouraged to regard tin t mi the right road, and rapid -(.vMif.tt is 1 1 1 o 'jest guarantee !'. I '.. who is much more of an ni.-t than he sometimes thinks he i ' M1-1' li.ll 1 V HDiun v yj o uiv i -.i r V...I t '.i .-v1 1 ii o In oil iii-o i., ii,! work, and finds some slight the most profitable b"i vestment the county has ever paid for. Departures All Over State. One thing that is noticeable about the educational advancement of North Carolina is the departure into new lines all over the State. It is possible that this thing of making education morn applicable to the. needs of Un people has something to do with the increasing interest in the schools. work, and the superintendent believe.- Along this line is the extension v k .it. :u the laci tnaT. we are not so fj; (Idap the scale as South Carolina. :av thai.ks to a lot of courageous sure nr..-. like Dr. Poe, and to an iwaUer.ir.g of the whole mass of the .M.nlaM .n nil alon?r the line. North rar.dina i.s improving. If you im f.roe, and strike a swift enough gait n your improvement, it is only a (I'U'stiofi of time until you can go from tt.H rtoot of the class to the head. Fifteen years is not a very long !:m. Fiitecen years ago the value of .ho s liool property of Durham coun ty was $11,450. That is not much, is it? Hat hut year thee value had pick t-d a until it showeed the highly sat ufutory figures of $123,300. That is an increase of almost eleven times in fiiV'cn years. In 1901 the county re iitd 37" illiterates, and last year til, That i a startling decrease, isn't The first high school in the coun '.y reported is 1J05, and last year the schools had 484 Etudcents. Tho hbririy lacked two of having 8,000 f '.i l.it year :ia against none in U'J.' The salaries of the teachers av j t Krsi $45.4ti last year as against V-v'0 fifteen years ago. These fig iir s ippty to the country districts and !i t include the city of Durhcm, hich is making its own rapid ad- K iwoA in school work, as the commo Ji 'is s- hool houses testify. In his an nuit report Superintendent C. V. lT.soy nays that illiteracy has been iTa't lc.ii jy wiped out of Durham " urty, aiid it is not the purpose of in- m-!j.)ojs to allow it to exist among V.m ked Up by the IVoplo. !i.--pert that Mr. Massey has beer. I that tho corn clubs have increased the efficiency of the farms very large ly, the acreage yield probably showing a gain of twenty-five per cent wince- the first club was established. With the corn elub movement has ci'm-. tht: greater interest in diversified fa Till ing, and the widwr knowledge ol the use of fertilizers effectively, of soil im provement, c-Uv It a p pars that al most any good thing having fr it' purpo.se the welfare of the people., is siezed upon by the Durham county schools as a factor in the curriculum. A suggestion for men of means in other counties is observed in the story of library development in Durham county. A dozen or more years ago Gen. Carr started a library movement by giving to each district ten dollars conditioned on raiting anotheer ten dollars witli which to start a library From that twenty dollars beginning iv each district has grown up a library of eight thousand books in the coun try schools. A little suggestion, a lit tie help at the start and an awakening of the people will do an infinite lot. One of the interesting features of the Durham county schools is the ag gregation of fine new school houses A county that has increased the value of its school houses ten times in little more than as many years gives suffice lent evidence of progress. Most of this increase has taken place in the last five years. The value of school build ings now is about three times what it was five years ago. About 1905 the districts began to vote special local school taxes. The rest was easy. Now school houses, more teachers, increas ed wages for teachers, increased at tendance at school, all give to the ed ucational work of Durham county an entirely different appearance. Incentive to Other Counties. I do not know the relative position that Durham county holds .with th other counties of the State, and I have not taken the trouble to hunt ui any Information, for the thing that struck me was the outbreak of edu cational enthusiasm in this immediate vicinity. We all know that when a things starts it rarely stops where it th f'niversity at Chapel Hill is w taking. The eomitv eiub work s. begins. Durham county has made ' no tri Mju school work ritrht en- sucn a pteasmg success or its wmri fl.f .'i.. 11 ..II.. . . . I 1 1 V. 1 .1 1 n - - . 4.14. i i- . . "'i-i unn iuiy L lite people OI Ills wiuu hcnuui urvciwiuuciu uwi i. tan- 'jM.dv, but at the same time it is not not fail to attract tho attention of '' 'i i to figure out that he Is somewhat other counties if they are not already 1'"-.vt in school work, for he picking up the enthusiasm for good to he as full of original schools, it is not lacK. or apprecia '.s as he is of energy, and he is I tion of education that has kept North ro;ti as a barn door in his nnnli- Carolina down near the foot of the ,r -of bis ideas to his school plans, class, nor is it the lack of means instance with sehnol hnihllntr unci When the Durnam county senooiu -H' n;neni he talks about good roads ir.u t'kphories in connection with re 1 - m s firutl work, and of school all v-'.r, irivluding summer school "; ' 'tuurs. and extension work for " is ui the grown ups. He alludes ttor sto-k, broadening-the. farm, -'Vi-rsity of crops, cannings clubs and 11 t sort of thing that centerj ,V " ' ; ',' le school, for he has made Im.. .v.ry that a shool is not . ,! ' "h place to keep the noses ol riiMrcn several hours a day in . ,." "".s, but a plac.i to make in- ' i iintl wdl-informod men and ' ' ' ' of thmi. ' a n i - - thiN s surprising to Miens agencies at work in var- " '"' M Hons for educating the vhild 't -m ag.-s up to say eighty years ' ' U-ast of the brajielies to b is that if improving the stock bounty and for this purpose the Agricultural Society has ;' 'i to distribute I I'Ml n 1 4.1. Al.. . ..I. oo uiere iiirougn V farm lif rhnnl ui f.i ar- blooded breedinj; the thef. ..'"vill- high school is another ol - "ovations adopted, and while the -"itMuhvit of 1 1 county school stimulate the boys with the corn clubs to make a greater yield of corn to the acre, so that the increase in pro duct ion amounts to twenty-five pef cent the schools have already shown how to provide means for the schools. The more intelligent methods that fol low new school houses in Durham county make Durham county farms enough more productive to pay for ah the school outlay and for a lot of other things besides. There is one of the first proofs that education pays. When the people realize this generally over the State yon will find that North Carolina will blossom with new school houses from Beaufort to Attorney General Bickett's new Slick Creeek out in the extreme west. This old State will pay any manner of school expenses and road expenses and any other legitimate expenses if we just proceed with proper diligence and intelligence to utilize the re sources. Before the Durham county schools get through they will have the Durham county farms yielding a crop that will be enough bigger than 'the old crops of the little mul and Dixie J plow day? to make the school hous to h exciting an interest all over th. State, and because the work outlines things of local interest and pertains people seem to be taking a. hand in the pople sem to bee taking a hand in tho tasks and are reading and thinking. J have half an idea that North Car olina is heading toward a development in education about on a par with the development it is pushing forward in all other directions. The county studv that is outlined by the University foi countj work is an innovation in edu cational practice as much of the ex tension work is. The central force of the county study clubs is the North Carolina Club at the University. The intent of the club is to arouse an in terest in every county that will result in the study of county and State af fairs, the comparison of each county with all the others and of the State with other States to seo wherein tne counties and the State might make greater progress. Probably the work that is represented by the Durham county schools and by the county study in the University clubs in the most important thing in North Caro Una at the present time. Like enough the University is doing on a widei scale wThat the county schools are do ing in their more restricted sphere. Unfortunately the-University is not so situated that the resident of each dis tricttrict can extend its work, for the districts can have a voice in how much can be done by the district by saying how much they will contribute The University county club work is a feort of thank-you ma'am job on the side, and a small fund for postage and similar kindred incidentals about cov ers the amount that may be expnded on it. But that will be remedied iv time, and meanwhile the stimulus giv en the counties will have started them on their own route toward broadening the educational facilities of the schools of their districts. Finding Pertinent Materia!. The University is printing a weeklv paper, The News Letter, which it is sending out to the papers all over the State, and the geniuses who get it up seem to have a sort of second sight in their faculty of finding pertinent ma terial concerning the progress and de velopment of the State and the coun ties. They go into every thing, from the amount of meat each county buys from Chicago to the. attendance at the moonlight schools. Wiping' Out llliterary. And there is another place where the-educational ambition is breaking through in this State. There are al ready in North Carolina nearly half a hundred schools for the overthrow of illiteracy among adults. t Benton ville a school of this type has an en rollment of 42 students. Columbus county has at one of her ten moon light schools a student 7. years of age. This is in line with A. a.nd M. College over at Raleigh, which has in one of the special farm courses a student also over 70. To make illiteracy rare in Vance county a cotton mill man over at Henderson is offering a dollar for every adult white illiterate taught to read and write. A feature about the University work is that it is of the same democratic character as the farm bulletins that are issued by State and Federal agri cultural departments, bringing every subject into the field of the student who is disposed to read or listen tc lectures. For instance the professors of the University, who go to the coun ties to lecture without any further cost than the payment of their travel ing expenses take up such things a? North Carolina Youths Set Val uable Example for Their Fathers; Fine Records North Carolina, boys lat-t yur ii.;nl GS.221.2 bushels or corn, on an equal number of acres, and added to the wealth of the State $33,004.35, which does not include The large amount of fodder or stover raised. The bovs beat their fathers in the number of bushels of corn grown on an acre byv 38. Had these buys grown corn at the average rat- for the Stat. . which i givon as 2'M' bushels per acre, they would have produced Is, T. 13.2 bush els. In other words, they produced 708 bushels more than they would -ney pioaueeo only at tne aver- 1 hi ("Continued on Page Two. tore, rate for the State. . cts have been pust made knowi. -h Mr. T. 10. Brown-. agent in of the corn club work in this Stat-, "i.here were enrolled in the corn clubs of the Stat: in 1914 4,e40 boys. Early in the season a special appeal was made to the teach ers in the rural school and the count.s farm demonstration agents. As a re sult, there was an increase of 100 per cent in the enrollment over 1913. The enrollment came from ninety-eight ot the one hundred counties in the State Wake led with an enrollment of ZZ- members, with Wilkes a close second, showing an enrollment of 300. Cald well made the best percentage of boys reporting. Out of an enrollment of tff members there were received forty- four reports. Of the enrollment of 4,F40 mem bers, reports were received from prac tically 1,000 boys. A number of re ports received were incomplete, and for this reason could not be accepted. The number of reports received was not so large as was expected, but this fact can be explained for tho reason that there was a great deal of un favorable weather during the most important part of the growing season In a number of cases there was a larg crop of rye or clover sown and on ac count of the dry weather this could not bo turned under and made ready for the spring crop. There were eighteen boys in the club who made more than 12F bushels of corn per acre, and seventy who made more than one hundred bushels. The following counties made specially good yields: Buncombe county had forty-five boys to report, averaging seventy-six bushels at a cost of 37 cents per bushel; Wake had seventy two boys to report 49 bushels at 4 0 cents per bushel; Wilkes had forty seven boys to report with an average yield of fifty-one bushels at an aver age cost of 37 cents per bushel; Dur ham had forty-four boys to report 64 bushels at a cost of 35 cents per bush el; Caldwell had forty-four boys to report an average yield of 56 bushels at a cost of 39 cents per bushel. Dudley Hall, a Rowan county boy, living near Salisbury, is the champion corn grower for the State. He made 14S.5 bushels on one acre, did all the work himself and produced the corn at a cost of 9.5 cents per bushel. Clyde May, of Caldwell county, pro duced 145 1-3 bushels at a cost of U cents. Adolphus Ball made 145 1- bushels at a cost of 2 5 cents per bushel. Each of these young men will receive a scholarship to A. and M. College, which is worth $5o. The promoters of the work in North Carolina will wage the campaign fr more corn more actively than ever be fore. Not only are the boys becoming ex pert corn growers, but their examples are being "followed by their fathers, who are improving their farming methods by the examples which are set by their fathers. The boys r--ceive regularly literature on the lat est findings of the State and National Departments of Agriculture, and when put to practical use make larger yields than had ever been expected on North Carolina soil. Corn is not only grown successfully, but also cover crops, such as ry. clover and vetches are grown and turned under for the enrichment of the soil. Four hundred new members have already enrolled in the Stat This is calculated to be the banner vear in corn production, as more em phasis will be placed on its cultiva tion on account -of the high prices which are prevailing for all kinds (4 grain.