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THE FARMER AND MECHANIC.
V ill 1 1 ; It ! 1 1 ! : J: i i': , 3 1 v 1 I i; J i ' i 1 ' ..? ? : ' ' f- , , . ' "j ' . i i ! "5 ; 1 I, ; . t ; .1 i J ' it i " j r 1 . i i , Iff' I- : 1 1 lit i I N MILLION SAV By Comptom Mackenzie 3 99 v . i r : r If me Relaians Are Allowed to On Earth. It Were Better the Moon, Says the Author of "Carnival" and "Sinister Street. mum ViA WW Roots Peace? The World's Responsibly Has Been Shouldered By America Opportunity to Save a Nation. Die While There Earth Should Die Is Food Like the As Her (op riht lv The t'oimni-ioii Tor Ktiief In ilcliihiiti, 71 Broadway, .Vim York.) It is with a consi inusness of deep humility that 1 take up my pn to write these words about Belgium. When others have pleaded hor cause :h more worthily than i can to plead it and when 1 even the most passionate turned to an idiot's tale, nothing in its attempt to nation's crueifixion, I ask what right i dare intrude Door words of mine. Belgium are razeu are crying out for 5s lircumf a heap of 00 muc ever h(pe have seen eloquence signifying express a mjself by with those The cities of and her people bread. Louvain ruhhish about which women sciatcn aimlessly; Brussels, that nce was a Kay prinees, has been debased to the Finiilltude of a starving drab; in Charleroi and Dendermonde, in Maes-trlr-ht nml in lM.mkerburehe the chil dren are whimpering for food; in Ant werp the children have clawed their victuals from the hands of the Ger man soldiers; in the windows of Ma lines, windows that are now as emp ty as the eye-sockets of a skull, little ghosts are peering, not the ghosts of the happier dead, but the ghosts made hy that hunger which is Death-in-t,ife. The world has read of the destruc tion of cathedrals and shuddered for tiie losd of great monuments of art; the world has uttered paeans for the heroism of a nation that esteemed honor above gain and laid down her life for an ideal; it is not too much to say that the world lias actually been hypnotized again in the blood of Belgium. Now comes a paler story, and one that is horrible with all that despair can bring of horror. Women etand shivering in the winter slush as they wait for as much bread as once upon a time they would have seen thrown away without a second glance. Children are kneeling to gnaw at the sodden roots of the fields. Rich and poor must behold them selves degraded from their humanity to lead the lives of rats. Nothing that misfortune can give of uncleanliness and indignity, of age and youth hu miliated, of pain and hunger has been ppared to Belgium. Seven Millions Alive In a Husk. Yet with all that they have en dured and with all that, whatever the world's compassion, they must Btlll endure, seven million Belgians are still alive In the husk of what was once a country. They may be trampled upon by the march of the conqueror; they may be denied all news of their devoted army; they may be taxed and fined and paid for their labor with bits of paper; they may be rained upon and snowed upon and frozen and thawed and frozen again; the very foundations of their shorn bouses may have vanished like the foundations of Babylon and Troy, the future may be more black than the blackened shells of their churches; they may have lost mothers and sis ters and daughters in that vile fog which follows in the wake of war; they may have lost fathers and sons and brothers, some gloriously on the field of battle, some with bandaged eyes shot against the doors of their own cottages not less gloriously; and yet seven million Belgians are alive in Belgium. But and if ever that conjunction was fraught with a heavy alternative. It is fraught with it now these peo ple will not be alive much longer un less the sum of five million dollars is found every month to pay for food and for the transport of food to Bel glum. I wish that 'but could be printed in letters of blood in letters of blood, did I say? Nay, rather in letters of imperishable fire that would burn the alternative into the eyesight I stuffs of humanity fed so full with horror as scarcely any more to be able to heed their reiteration. The fate of these seven million peo ple is the world's responsibility. This is not the moment to try to say who is guilty of their state; the wrangling of diplomats and the clash of arms will not drown the moans of seven millions starving for bread. We have read before 1914 of earthquakes, of pestilence ana shipwreck, of railway accidents and mining disastersr and yet If all the lives lost in fifty years by sudden visitation of calamity were added together, they would not nearly equal the sum of these people who are at this moment actually dependent for the breath of life upon five mil lion dollars a month. It is costing the powers of Europe more than fifty million dollars a day and ten thousand lives a day to determine the future of the land of Belgium; let us at least, three hundred times as cheaply pre serve the seven million lives to whom that country belongs. We read now in a small paragraph (such a shuttle cock have we made of human life) of losses that a year ago would have occupied a journal for days with their harrowing narration. Vet even this dreadful induration of our senses mmt be softened by the prospect of seven millions starving slowly to death. How for ever it haunts one to meet in the swirl of a great city's tide of humanity the eyes of a starving man; but at least in a city that wretched creature could he conquer his pride or his scruples might obtain food by breaking the window of a baker's shop. These seven millions cannot do that. Their land is empty of nourishment. When the last scraggy cabbage stalk is devoured, when the last hen has starved; when the last rind of cheese has been raked out of the darkest corner of the desolate house, unless they can nourish themselves upon the earth of the land to protect the vio lation of which they have martyred themselves, these seven millions must die, and when they die, Belgium is dead. If the World lts Belgium Die? What will peace bring to the world then? To what shall we ever look forward again? If these people are allowed to die while there is food on the earth, it were better t hat the earth should die like the moon and humanity itself become not even a name among the spheres of the uni verse. For the fact that these seven mil lion Belgians are still alive we owe an unparagoned debt of gratitude to the American Commission for Relief; and because of the amazing difficul ties which that Commission has al ready surmounted, one is tempted tc place for the future an even greater, an even more strenuously exacting faith in the American people. This Commission was organized by Ameri can citizens living in London. Amid the blood and tears of Eu rope a few gentlemen resolved that the ultimate reproach of a people's starvation should not be levelled against this time of ours. It was Mr. Brand Whitlock, that fine Mayor of Toledo and now the American Minis ter in Brussels, who made the first appeal. He saw starvation and caring nothing for the pettiness of diplo matic restraint he appealed for help through the American Ambassador in London. Dr. Page, upon his own in iativo appointed a committee of Amer ican citizens resident in London in order that they might apply them selves to organize the feeding of a nation. Consider how fantastic and improbable that scheme must have looked and think of the stupendous Quixotry of it. War which is resorted to for that solution of political problems offers no solution for the misery it entails upon humanity. War with its myriad ten tacles squeezing the life out of Eu rope and squirting forth a murky and loathsome juice to poison the tide of pity, was nevertheless impotent against tne determination of these men. They were armed with the con viction that their countrymen at home would support them and wita a serene faith that has already been magnificently justified they brushed aside the objections of the Chancel leries and walked over the prejudices of generals. Nor would they listen to the croak ing of financiers who spoke of the cost; and their resolution prevailed even against the uncertainty of ship pers who pointed out the restriction upon the export and imnort of food- Finally they allayed the SOME COMMON BIRDS USEFUL TO THE FARMER ness, nay more, tho positive success of their scheme for the relief of Bel gium. They assimilated into one perfect organization, known as the Commis sion for Relief in Belgium, the Bel gian's own central committee at Brussels and the various charitable activities of Italy and Spain. They did not appeal to the people of Eng land, but they got without asking thousands of dollars; and from Amer ica with the generous aid of Lindon W. Bates and Robert D. McCarter in New York they have received millions already. Thirty-eight steamers with aggregate tonnage of 150,000 are speeding at full steam across the At lantic bringing 128,000 tons of food valued at over eight million dollars and costing in collection, shipping and delivery another two millions. But more is wanted. Five million dollars every month is wanted to keep seven million Belgians from dying of hun ger amid the ruins of their homes and churches. . America's Opportunity, the First in History. The opportunity of America at this moment is one that has surely never been offered to any nation before in the history of the world. The task of preserving from the lingering death of hunger seven million human be ings demands self-sacrifice, determi nation and magnanimity. Great vic tories on the field of battle have been won by these virtues, but every vic tory in war carries with it also the horror and the misery of war. A victory is afforded to the American people that will not cloud one star or smirch one stripe upon her banner. A victory is offered that will indeed add to her banner a star which may seem ever more bright than any star there posited. There is no one in that mighty re public who can afford not to give; there is no one who can afford to know that a nickel given now will keep a child alive for two days and noi aci upon nis Knowieage. xms is not an appeal that calls for money about the spending of which effica ciously there can be any doubt or de- iay. xne neea is instant; merely a nickel given now is to save a child drowning in shallow water before your eyes. No one would allow that to happen without calling himself a coward for the rest of his life; surely no one will think a nickel too much to give. But 1 do not write these words be cause 1 have the least doubt that America, wm give again ana again as generously as she has already given The thought is indeed unimaginable. inese woras oi mine are intended to try, however inadequately, to bring oeiore tne notice or. an immense and charitable people the violent need for haste in giving. people are dying now who can be saved; those who have been, kept alive nave been only kept alive by America in defiance of the inexorable results of war. Belgium's Gratitude, w iieu me iiusiory oi inis time IS written to the last streak; when the last bugle has sounded and the last widow is left to her mourninc: when all the heroes of all the warring na tions have fought their last fight and Europe turns to regard the bloody work she has accomplished, you O great Republic, must say, "We took not one life. We robbed not one mother of her son nor any woman of her lover. We saved seven millions from a slow, inglorious death." They are grateful already in Bel gium. A well-known JNew York law- birds mentio;.. "Home Comm. Farmers." will all applicants Destroy Harmful Insects ami Seeds Bulled n of Agricultural i,-. partment Makes Plan. How birds which destroy ham; insects and weed seed may be to the farmer is described in u : , . Farmers' Bulletin - (No. C30) of w . department entitled, "Some Conm Birds Useful to the Farmers.' 7: new publication has 27 pages and illustrations (not colored) of t: birds described. It contains muc h the information included in om the department's former publieati entitled, "Fifty Common Birds , Farm and Orchard." The dt-par: ment's supply of this latter pamphl. has been exhausted, and it can n.... only be obtained from the Su-. intendent of Documents, Washing:.." D. C, where it is sold at 15 cents . copv. It contains numerous col,, illustrations of the The new bulletin. Birds Useful to the furnished free to the department. Whether a bird is beneficial - jurious depands almost entirely ; what it eab?, says the introducti-:; the new bulletin. In the a species which are very abundant, which feed to some extent on 1 crops of the fanner, the question their average diet, becomes on ct supreme importance. and only i : stomach examination can it be satis factorily solved. Field observations are at best but fragmentary and in conclusive and lead to no final re sults. Birds are often accused t f eating this or that product of culti;. tion when an examination of th. stomach shows the accusation to t unfounded. Accordingly, the Biologi cal Survey has conducted for son, years past a systematic invest iati or. of the food of those species which up most common aoout tne Tarm at", garden. Wthin certain limits birus eat ii. kind of. food that is most accessible. especially when their natural food i scorce or wanting. mus iney sorii- times injure the crops of the farmer who has unintentionally destroys t their natural food in his improve ment of swamp or pasture. Most of the damage done by birds and com plained or by farmers and fruit growers arise;s from this very cause. f P V- y-x KnfriT I - - i vi wi r jt ti i ho o n it r c : bearing weeds have been cleared away, and the birds have no recourse but to attack the cultivated gram or fruit wThich have replaced their natural food supply. The great ma jority of land birds subsist upon in sects during the period of nesting and moulting, and also feed their young upon them during the first few weeks Many species live almost entirely upon insects, taKing vegetable iooo only whei other subsistence fails. I is thus evident that in the course of a year birds destroy an lncaicuiaoni number of insects, and it is difficult to overestimate the value of their services in restraining the great tid of insect life. In winter, in the northern part of the country, insects become scarce or entirely disappear. Many species of birds, however, remain during the cold season and are able to main tain life by eating: vegetable food, as the seeds of weeds. Here again is another useful function of birds ir destroying these weed seeds anl thereby lessening the growth of the next year. The new publication discusses th food habits of more than fifty birds belonging to twelve families. Man? are eastern forms which are re pre sented in the west by slightly differ ent species or subspecies, but unles the food habits differ they are not separately described. Among th popular birds included are the robin, bluebird, wren, brown thrasher, cat bird, bobolink, oriole, crow, cuckoo, and the American sparrow. aouDts or the allies when they pro cured from the Germans an assur ance that the relief would be allowed to be distributed: indppd thv did more they persuaded the Germans to facilitate the distrihut inn. The organizer and chairman of the committee was Mr. H. C. Hoover, a Californian and probably the greatest mining expert in the world. -This gen tleman had already presided over the American Belief Committee which financed over ten thousand Americans and sent them back to America in the early weeks of the war. Night and day for a month Mr. Hoover. Colonel Hunsiker, Captain Lucey, Mr. John B. White. Mr. Edgar Rickard. Mr. Millard Shaler and other well-known Americans living in London devoted the whole of their time to the colos sal task of proving to the warring governments of Europe the feasibl-- RCIiES TO IilVE A CENTURY. -Granny McElroy," Cheerful and HelpfuL Tells How Sh Vfnim it Norcross, Ga., dispatch to Atlanta Con stitution. One hundred uruary iz, 1815, Margaret Melindy iucr,iroy, known to evervbodv in Nor. , ' vrrauny iciuiroy," was Dorn. tyranny" McElrov is tni rv happy as she sits on the porch of one uvr cmiaren and shells peas or onigs oia-time melodies. Her 100th KiT-fHio v. .-Ar. "'h.T.l U.Z1?JVV?- grated by her descendants witK a fam : . . auuiunues reunion. All thf llnntr oViinirt-n in oraer tnat ne mignt see Dersonaliv eranrihiin ".; :" 0JV. ":"' thA work that Tx-no hcirc " ' I r "V Krt-aL-Kra.nacniiuren a " " oy ine ereat-great grandchildren will be speaks of many instances of appre ciation accorded to him by that for lorn Belgian people. Amongst others he tells how in one village a woman with a child on one arm and a loaf uuimi&siyn 3 Dread on the other, came up to his car and touched with her lips the little flag of the ".ltS upon tSe r iiie iove 1 bear vnnr fivfs'."0 "U h veVSSr Whoever in America, whether he be in New York or Illinois, in Iowa ct Michigan, in Virginia or Tennessee in mnmf? T' A this mtni "1!S nickeI, eves a loaf to r. s ana offers the t 4V"uniri to be saluted uumuaiiuu inu ouection of ized woril. flag by the the civil- present and have a picture taken, s no"m& five generations. 'Granny" McElroy retires early, rises early, helps about the houae for her own amusement, shells peas and w-kP8, shucks corn and reads her Bible. She has to wear very strong glasses and her hearing is impaired, but she can still see and hear, chat, work a little, get around by herself and sirg many quaint songs. When asked to what she ascribed her long life she replied: "I have lived lon in the land the lord my God hath given me by being temperate in my habits and never eat in too much. I believe in a simple diet of meats and fresh vegetable with a small amount of liquid. I never drink more than hair a cup of milk, corree. tea or water at a meal, and l drink no liquid r.t aU when I hav soup.'