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THE FARMER AND MECHANIC.
H General James Johnston Pettigrew Sketch By General Jam. Conner With Introductory Note By R. D. W. Connor. .1 it: ru e ., other man has ever 'lived in ,ih Carolina who, in so brief a r. , r. made so profound an impres ,i on his generation as General J. hnrston Pettigrew. The brilliance intellectual powers, tne ro of bin military career, the of his striking personality, ap stroncly to the imagination of ontemporaries, and they always . V. and wrote of him in terms of i warmest eulogy. Of his intimate ..'-...kites none knew him better than i i, ,.'r; 1 .lames Conner, of Charles i... General Conner himself had a ..ii Tbilisi ted career in war, at the llt, and in politics. Entering the ...'federate army as a captain, by :.-,. -ive promotions he attained the s ink of brigadier-general; in 1865, i. wts promoted to the rank of ,. ., inr-gcneral, but his commission ih-mjrh forwarded to him failed to 4. toh him before the surrender of c. f I.t e's armv. Before the war ;,;ir:tl Conner had been United ii .t. District Attorney; and after the w.s fleeted Attorney-General of .-:.. ih Carolina on the ticket headed ' . General Wade Hampton. General r'uaner was long and intimately asso :u : with Pettigrew i-society, at the l;r. in polities, and in war, and nan had a better opportunity to 1 1 . f 1 1 1 a Jut estimate of his character ability, rr.e following letter, vnMt ii to a kinsman of f.naMy Joseph Hlythe therefore, Pettigrew Allston), ly one year after Pettigrcw's death. ( particular interest to the people North Carolina. It, together with 1 1"' t ' i - t N. C. ..ther documents accompanying article, is in the Pettigrew Pa in possession of the North Caro Historieal Commission. These is have recently been presented '. trie North Carolina. Historical Com i,i i.ui bv General Jttigrew's nieces, th- lisses Pettigrew of Tryon, l ! n!ra. the papers of lit ii.r!..- Pettigrew, first ;: . h. i vf North Carolina, of his son !.. .;..-.er Pettigrew, member of Con-c;-.-s, and of the latter' s son, General iMini-ton IVttigrew; and cover the ir 1772 to 1867. They form one "i tne most valuable collections of historical papers bearing on North Vr Mina in existence. IhithI Conner's Sketch of Pettigrc-w. Charhns, Aug. 8, 1864. i -ar Allston: ir oiupliance with your request T -Mi.leavor to give you a sketch of acquaintance with Johnston Pet w. 1 regret that the many in- 'rruptions of camp life and active rvice prevent my sending a more t.i!i:i tribute to the memory of our 1 1 was early in 1850, while attend ' the law courts as a student that I '") .lit- first time saw Johnston Pettier-, lie had but recently been ad 'ni".'.l to the bar and was then mak u.. arrangements to travel and com !'i"t' his studies in Europe. He had 'ft ii a student of law in the office i his distinguished relative, the Hon. 'Dir.; I,. Peticru. the acknowledged ob-r of the bar of our State. I was 'V-lf a student In the same office, hi.'! on entering it had been impress 1 with the reputation which Pettier.-w had left behind him among his iVilow students, and I listened with un;es.s to the stories which they i- l:ited of his wonderful quickness of i'lH-llect, and facility in acquiring in f"'ii,atiun. The number of law stu-h-ns in the city was at that time and all of them had to some ex Wcome acquainted with Petti- . and all were enthusiastic in admiration of him. To me he a stranger. I had never met and when for the first time he pointed out to me in court I re- i t r 'I.:. Mu-ir A .'IS hi ianlfd him intently. His ap-pear- i well confirmed nil that I had ard. The intellectual characterized v..ry feature and even the quick movements of the body seemed to be in harmony with what I had h".xd of the quickness of his mind. ?b left shortly after for Europe and I '"utjnued my studies in the law of "c. Two years afterwards he re-'unu-d and commenced the practice " law in Charleston in connection Vltll Mr Inmna T. Poiini nd T he- ;ime acquainted with him, an ac naintance which ripened into an in-'-hnacy which lasted unbroken dur- his life. Bin Urst appearance in court was junior counsel in a cause of some bar Mr. i . lenru reserving to himself the re ply, entrusted to his junior the open argument in the case. Petti grew's effort on that occasion at once 'Htahlished his position as leader of he young bar. His subsequent ef forts strengthened and confirmed the Position which he had attained. Care- HMortance. The leaders of the vr eniraifjirl nunn rHhr Kide. rope wnere he had devoted himself to its study and whence he had re turned wtih the diploma of Doctor of Civil Law from tlm irn5vnu,. Berlin. - To the thoroueil knnxlr.1oo .f law he added thp irm... ,f tended literal culture. A classical scholar of no ordinary merit, and a proficient in the languages of France, Spain, and Germany, the broad fields of ancient and modpm m. til rn ti'AfA open to him and from them he drew strength and inspiration. His judi cial efforts and especially those ad dressed to the highest appellate court of the State were remarkable not less for their sound law and close logic, than for their elegance and finsh. In a brief period he was in full practice, enjoying the respect and confidence of the community and of the profession. xne position ne had attained and the strength and fullness of mind wnicn ne manifested on all occasions wnicn orought him before the public soon drew attention to him as one whom the interest of the community required should be placed in the leg islature or tne state. At first he de- which lu eiiitr into do l noa nt nr to become a candidate for a seat in the House of Keo resent a tivps nt tVic approaching election. The importu nity of his friends who, aware of his talents, were anxious that he should have a wider field for their display, overcame his own inclinations and he consented to serve, and was elected. The session at which he first took hi seat was an important one. Three grave question, after having been earnestly discussed in the State, were formally brought before the legisla ture for decision the remodel of the judicial system, the re-opening or the slave trade, and the relations of the State to the Federal government. In the debate in the first of these ques tions Pettigrew took a prominent part and his closely reasoned, vigorous Rev. 1 speech would have done honour to Episcopal any man in the Assembly. It gave him at once a high position in the Legislature and the State. It wras re garded as a remarkable speech, the highest expectations were formed of a career so brilliantly begun. The first fruits of it wTere his an- pointment, although one of the young est members of the House, upon the special committee to report upon the proposition to reopen the slave trade. All the resolutions and bills upon that subject were referred to the commit tee with leave to sit during the recess and to report at the ensuing session of the legislature. During that inter val Pettigrew had so impressed the committee with his ability that that portion of it, coinciding with his views requested him to accept the post of chairman of the committee and make the report, the actual chair marr of the committee, with great courtesy and magnanimity waiving his right to the position and insisting on Pettigrew's acceptance of it. Such accordingly was the arrangement made and Pettigrew was instructed to frame the report. To this labour he devoted much of the summer in tervening between the two sessions. How he performed the duty is well known. The report is justly regarded as one of the ablest State papers ever submitted to the legislature. The question was not local. It had been for some time a prominent topic of discussion with the press and public men of the South and parties had been formed upon it, still it had never been fully and thoroughly investigat ed or reasoned out in a broad and comprehensive spirit. To this Petti grew now devoted himself and so thoroughly did he exhaust the subject in his report that from its publica tion the revival of the slave trade ceased to be an agitating question of politics. But while such was the ef fect produced by the publication of his report, few were aware of the careful, patient, research, the deep and earnest thought he had given to the subject before submitting the re port to the country. It was my privi lege to be intimate with him and to be at the same time interested in a kindred branch of the same question, and thus to see and know more of his labours than the majority of his as sociated. The study of the history of the slave trade in this country, its growth of progress, the legislation of the several States for its suppression, the. discussion upon the constitutional clause upon it in the U. S. convention of 1789, sic nad the final adoption of the prohibition, were not enough to satisfy his eager inquiries, but with a view to examine the question in all its hearings, he pushed his investiga tion across the water, and from tne mas? of forgotten pamphlets and blue books so profusely entered upon when the question of West Indian Emancipation occupied European at tention, sought all the aid that they paper secured to its author as large a share of public :iTtnt inn rri riilili.- OC- com- reginiont fully id furnish to a careful and mon law, he had added to his at- thorough examination of the question, ainmenta in that branch of jurispru- Rarely has an public duty been more dence, an accurate knowledge of the conscientiously performed, and rarely rivil law gathered during stav in Eu-'has the publication of a single State approval It was about this period that Pet- If 'Mir 1 s-. . J . 1 - l'firv iriu uj iane a deeper inter- ! est in public affa to divine to what point the diverging tendencies of North and South xrt about to carry us. Gradually his doubts resolved themselves with th conviction that a disruption was in evitable and that that riiernntinr. would with equal certainty result in civil war. He reerarded u-:u- tn event distinctly foreshadowed and the conviction once established in his own mind he immediately sought to prepare himself for participation in the struggle. lie devoted his leisure hours to mastering the science of war so far as that could be accomplished by closest study., His great abilities as a mathematician and the distinction he had achieved in that department of the exact sciences rendered the ac quisition of all that pertained to en gineering and artillery a pleasant la- nour and to the other branches of military study he devoted himself with that eagerness which character ized ah his pursuits. His knowledge r. 4 V. 1 . 1 rt . l uic neuuii aim oerman languages opened to him the best treatises of these countries in the several branch es oi military science. He soon ac quired a proficiency which won for him the esteem of professional sol aiers. with these be mingled fre quently, gratified at the opportunity it attoraed of discussing military questions and at one time the socia discussions at his room turned almos entirely upon military matters. x , . . reaper iu see someining oi war on a grand scale, to see reduced to prac tice the theories of the books and to see how fields were lost and won, h embarked for Europe to obtain, if possible, a place on the French staff, in the Franco-Italian war then wag ing, betters of the strongest charac ter and from the most influential per sonages in the country were easily procured for him and with advant ages rarely possessed by any Amer ican he left this country to seek the position he coveted. He succeeded in procuring an appointment not on the French, but on the Sardinian staff, and left Paris to report, but on the road was met by the news of the peace of Villa Franca. This closed his military career for this period. Avail ing himself of the opportunity, which his stay in Europe permitted, he pur- suea nis military studies at pans un der the best teachers that could be orocured, and towards the close of the year, returned to Charleston bnnging with him undiminished hi ardour for military pursuit; and his conviction that the time was ap Droaching when a proficiency in them would be most appropriate and valu able. He had been much struck while in France by the drill -efficiency of the French Zouaves, and on his return to Charleston elected captain of the rifle company he endeavored to fashion it upon the model which he so much admired. He drilled it carefully and constantly in the gymnastic step of that celebrated corps. His drills were as a matter of convenience principally on moonlight nights, and as the regu lar, rapid tramp of the troops mov ing at the double quick was heard crowds gathered upon the battery to witness the new performance. He also taught it to perform all the evo lutions as skirmishers, and by this energy and knowledge and stnet uiscipnne soon made his com mand one of the crack companies of the city, and in many respects the model for all others. His success with nis company iea to nis election as colonel of the first rifle regiment, the most complete organization of volun teer troops in the State. Entering upon the duties of his new office with the same zeal which had characteriz ed his performance of them in the subordinate capacity of company com- -i . manoer ne soon maoe nis regiment a model for all volunteer organizations. Nor was this all. He made himself beloved by his entire command. Their respect for his abilities, their confi dence m his judgment, courage and coolness rendered them promptly obedient to every order. They believed in him and loved him, and he could rely upon their following him wher ever he led. Well for the State was it that at a period when she was so soon to need military skill and ser vice, one at least of her sons had studiously qualified himself for hte struggle and had prepared others to act in cheerful co-operation with hirn. The value of an organized body of troops carefully instructed, well equipped, having confidence in them selves and faith in their leader, could not well be over estimated. The time soon came for action, rapid, prompt action, and Pettigrew then reaped the full fruits of his labours. His com mand tendered their services to the State and were accepted.- The con vention bad separated the State from the United States. War seemed im minent. The Federal commandant. Major Anderson, had under cover of night evacuated Port Moultrie and occupied Fort Sumter, the seizure of the other fort was regarded as im portant and on the 27th of December koi. i-eitigrew received orders to cupy castle Pinokney with his mand. while Fort Moultrie cupied by the fir.M. artillery of the State. Major Anderson was in the meanwhile busily engaged put ting Fort Sumter in as complete a state of preparation as his means permitted. It was the object of the United States government to re-en- orce the slender garrison and to pro vision the fort for a seitre. It was equally the object of the State to frustrate any such movement :nul nt council of war held in the executive chamber it was resolved t f, irtifv ft. portion of Morris Island commanding the main ship Channel on that side ot the harbor while Forr M.niUrin guarded the entrance ou the onpo- site shore. Col. Pettigrew was assigned to the command of Morris Island and order ed to erect the necessary works and arrange for the defence of the island. The task assigned him was ditHenlt The selection of nroner positions fnr batteries to command the channel, the designing and erecting proper works, the traininir. disci nl iiiir :nd 1 l r-i -"--- sunrniiuf, uouits oi volunteer troops unused to service, impatient of its re straints, and ignorant of the first ru diments of camp life, required not only high skill and energy but also good temper, and especially that tact and address in governing men with out which the highest skill would have been useless. The ability which Col. Pettigrew displayed in the discharge of these onerous responsible duties secured for him the high consideration of the executive authorities of the Stale and thenceforth there was hardly a coun cil of war to which he was not invit ed. On the arrival of General Beau regard, Colonel Pettigrew was order ed to assume the command of Sul livan's Island, and was on dutv at this point when the bombardment of Fort Sumter took place. That light. as will be remembered, was purely one of artillery and there was no op portunity for the infantry arm of the gallantry- Its duties were simj ly to service to display its patriotism or the artillery and watch the Fort were con- war beyond the special organiza The reputation wThich General cover coast. Immediately after the fall of Sumter preparations for war vigorously made by both of the tending parties. The troops which had been embodied for the defense of Charleston and who had been in the fieid for three months, were with ew exceptions only the militia or ganizations of the State. For the prosecution of the limits of the State tions were needed. for military ability Pettigrew had acquired and the con fidence he had inspired in all who had served with or under him, point ed him out as an appropriate leader tinder whom to organize. The same qualities, however, had already at tracted the notice of the Legislature and the position of Adjutant-General of the State was tendered to him and his acceptance of it warmly urged un der the belief that his administrative ability could accomplish more good in organizing the iorces or the Ktate than by restricting himself to the duties of a single regiment. The po sition, howTever, was not acceptable to him and he declined it. He pre ferred the active duties of the field and at the request of General Beaure gard and with the approval of the executive of the State he proceeded to organize a rifle regiment for the war, of which he was to be colonel. Companies far exceeding the number permitted were rapidly raised and tendered to him. His selections made, the field and staff officers agreed upon and Major Barker, the junior field officer, despatched to Montgomery, the then seat of the Confederate gov ernment, to tender the regiment to the Secretary of War, and receive au thority to muster it into service. The views of the War Department at that time were not to receive or ganized regiments but to receive only companies, reserving to itself their organization into regiments and the selection and appointment of the field officers. This mode of organization was not in accordance with the wish es or expectations of those who con stituted the regiments. The compa nies had been formed and organized entirely with a view to the rifle re giments and to those whom they had understood were to beits field officers, and the proposition to lay aside those under whom they were anxious to serve and for whom they had raised and organized these companies was in the highest degree distatsteful to the officers of the regiment. Several at tempts were made to change the de cision of the Secretary of War but without effect and the several com panies composing the regiment being unwilling to accept officers named by the War Department and unknown to them sought and obtained admission into other organizations then in pro cess of being raised in the State urr (Contiued on Page Twelve).