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THE FARMER AND MECHANIC.
13 ------ GLNHKAL OBREGON, THE INDICATING AND MEXICO'S NEW IDOL RECORDING OF TIMR York. Sun.) i A man to whom many eyes in Mexico are now turning is General .Ivaro Obregon, who is in charge of the Constitutionalist forces in sou- hern Mexico. General Obregon was hero of the battles of Puebla and Mexico City; he is a now figure among ipe Mexican chiefs. Next to the first hief of the Constitutionalists, Venus- ji'tiio Carran.a, he is the most po r man in his party. Tntil a few weeks ago, when he irHutt-il the largest army ever gather .ii by Villa and Zapata, drove them from their fortified positions and . .ipt'ired the city of Puebla, hewas little known. It is true he had taken ',; active part in the revolt against Di!t. and lluerta, but like many others ne was noon fo rotten. But when j lie news of the capture of 1'uebla was 4 ollovvt-d by the fall of the city o ! rwo a shout of Joy went up from .v oiis and Indians and General Obre- it became a popular idol Ft range a.s it may seem. General - oregon, while holding the fortress of Din Constitutionalist forces within his iar ds, is at heart no soldier at all. Whiie acquitting himself with credit ipon forces of battered Gun. Obregon. the battlefield he is dreaming .1 peace ana tranquility, liis ambi tion is to return to his farm and cul bvate his little Datch of land. More than once- he has expressed his dis gust for the game of warfare. It is a devil's? game, he declares, in which h ii man beings should not indulge. A.'yi -tin loss a braver fighter is not to be. found in the ranks of tho Con : itutionalisis. in the days when rorfirio Diaz was liil ruler of Mexico Obregon was a i'.irm r on the distant plains of the -Mate of Sonora. There, far away fr.'Ui civilization, he lived his simple life, hardly dreaming of the days when ?n- would have to forsake his plough 'or the ride and sword. Then the call .Mi.-. H was in the days when 'rancisco I. Madero started the up--iing against Diaz. Obregon thought much ;nd finally decided to light for .,. liberty of his country. 1 having once decided to join the . volution he did not waste any time. Hp gathered about him his neighbors, -iplained the situation to them and urged them to join the ranks of the j-bc-hs. More than 350 men responded lo his call. Obregon furnished his tittle array with the necessary arms, -i ip munition and horses. Leading his "Dowers to the nearest rebel camp he offered his services to the cause .f tb.; people. From that day on 'Oregon was one of the military 1-aders of struggling Mexico. -Ml the glories he won during the revolt against Diaz could not keep oiin from his farm. As soon as Madero was established as President of Mexico Obregon refused to have anything to do with military forces, fie had no personal ambitions and he returned to tionora to resume his nor- mal life of a farmer. But he was not to till tne soil very long. Fifteen months after he had re turned to his home news was flashed aeroos the country of the assassina tion of Madero and of the seizure of he Presidency by Victoriano lluerta. This was followed by the refusal of Venustiano Carranza, at that time Governor of the State of Coahuila, to recognize lluerta and the organization "f the Constitutionalist revolt. Car- ran za did not have to call Obregon to his banner. As soon as the news reached him of the revolt inaugurated by Carranza Obregon saddled his horse and rode to resume command of his little band of soldiers Those who enjoyed the confidence C the dictator sav that when lluerta earned of the Carranza revolt he con suited his trenerals legarding the situ- ion. His chiefs said to him: "We have little to fear. Their gen "rals arc all men of little experience but beware of Col. Obregon. It is 'rue he is only a colonel, nevertheless be h more of a soldier and general tb'in any of us." lluerta kept silent for "lids and then responded. "Well, if we can't buy him we'll t ie to fiirht and kill him. Be it as H in ay. he certainlv is a force to con jure with." It was not long before lluerta. learn d that Obregon could not be bought and certainly could not be defeated For more than a year he had charge of the northwestern division of the Constitutionalist army. He started his campaign in his native State of Sonora. closo to the United States border, and after a year's continuous successful fighting was the first of the Constitutionalist generals to reach Mexico City. Military experts say that this march of more than 2,000 miles was one of the greatest military feats accomplished by any of the Mexican leaders. Until the appearance of General 1 bregon upon the scene it was the Popular belief that Villawcould never be defeated. He was the terror of the Mexican soldiers. The mere men tion of his name was sufficient to spread fear among those whom he was to attack. But something entirely dif ferent happened when Villa met the The latter the Ion estAhiivVri out.-. tition and outgeneraled Villa, in thP greatest battle fought in the war Francisco Klias. Meviean General at New York, who is one of Gen. Obregon's most intimate friends, relates a number of interesting stories which throw an ilh upon the personality and the meth ods of the young General. According to him Obregon is only 35 vears old and is the youngest and most sue- cessiui oi tno fcreneralx nn tbo stiff wi. me x mei, carranza. lie is a native of the State of Sonora. There m -a -1 - ne received ins early education and there also he spent most of his vonth. In his early twenties he invented an agricultural machine which was pat ented in the United States and sold to an American concern. With jiiune-jf v uiuii nc reeeivea ror ins invention he bought himself a small farm, to which he devoted most of his time. Regardless of his high rank, Gen eral Obregon is a very simple and democratic individual. He is con stantly seen among his soldiers chat ting with them and entirely oblivious of his superior rank. He is passion ately fond of stories and jokes and is an insatiable reader. In his list of supplies are to be found constantly orders for books, magazines and news papers. He carries writh him a small library while in the field. Most of his knowledge of warfare Obregon has derived from study of the life and activities of Nanoleon. In many respects Obregon emulates Napoleon. Often before a battle he addresses his soldiers and officers and by his enthusiasm and eloquence gains their loyalty and support. Usu ally he gives them "to understand that it is they who hold the destiny of Mexico in their hands and not he. Future generations will hold them re sponsible for failures and will re member them if they succeed. Gen. Obregon was the first man in Mexico to place the army there on a modern scientific basis. He reorgan ized his forces after a profound study of the United States army. He also gathered the largest force of soldiers known in that land. Until his time an army ol 10,Uo men was considered an immense force. Kven the shrewd old dictator Huerta was not able to mass a bigger force. But the first thing Obregon did was to organize an army of more than 25,000 men and place it on a modern military footing. Then he. turned his attention to thing most needed in his field hospital. Obregon is very modest. He speaks little of his victories and achieve ments. Unlike most Generals, he takes little credit to himself. After his victory and the occupation of Mexico City his colleagues and officers gathered to congratulate him upon his success. Gen. Obregon received them with surprise and informed them that the congratulations were due to his soldiers and not to him. It was they, he said, who shouldered most of the fight for the cause. He himself was burden: it was they who won the but a small cog in the great wheel of progress. His earnestness and his simplicity won him the admiration of his soldiers. THE DEAF NEVER BEG When a So-Called "Mute" Arks For Funds, Put Him in Touch With Police, is Advice. (From office of the Inspector Bureau of the National Association of the Deaf.) Each winter sees a number of able bodied medicare too lazy to earn an honest living, who solicit alms bv masquerading as "deaf and dumb.'' The strange part of it is that thev not only completely hoodiwink the general public, unaware of the truism that "the deaf never beg," but fre quently secure the support of public opinion when suddenly confronted hiiu unmasKed by a genuine deaf son. Mr per- (.Presrf S-rvi'-e Smithsonian lr-iitu- tion.) "Washington. D. C, Feb. 27. The in dication of tirm has long been one of the most important factors in the history of the world. F.ven the primi tive peoples had some crude methods of telling time, usually by the sun. and one of the first implements vised f-r The purpose was a vertical pole stuck in the ground to establish the noon mark. Representative types of early time-keeping apparatus and mechan isms from various countries are to be seen in the U. S. National Mu.-eiim at Washington. I. C. This collection con sists of permanent and portable sun dials, hourglasses, time candles and lamps, a large series of watches, and watch movements, and ch.cks. includ ing a water clock of the 17th century. Among the sundials, which are per haps the best known of the earlv time . Arnold Kiene. a. wealrhv .1 f 1 n "Se.t ly dealer in bank supplies, tried "to se- no ontagnais Indians of mada. cure the arrest of a "deaf" beggar cw a pole set vertically, tin on the street cars of I.ns Angeles the -shadtnv ot wch was marked in the other day. Sympathetic passengers VV'V' almost mobbed the real deaf man. ii JV J i X' th n" The other i sstill panhandling-some- tltrl f-"ll Vf ,rakV' th Where passage of time calculable, tuber in- the army a TjK G- TjIjIKNNE ON" SNOW. a few sec- liovetl Pespite The Trouble It Causes, He Writes. Richard Le Cadlienne, m Harpers Magazine. Snow brings a curious sense of friendliness and gayety. Though a child of the cold, the gentle sister of the frost, it has a warm, caressing, playful way with it, and, particularly in the ciiy, at once evokes a mood of holiday-making even in the most serious and careworn hearts. Man kind at large seems to be idled with a boyish glee at its coming, and at whatever expenses to our inconven ience, tieups or traffic and other inter ruptions of our serious business, the wilder it whirls and the thicker it fall the better pleased we grow. Wc read of telegraph wires down, of trains north and west snowed in, of snow- plows fighting their way through 20- foot drifts and the like excitements wuth kindling eyes. - We take a per sonal satisfaction in the triumphs of this wild, white, simple thing from the wilderness that is able with such ease to throw out of gear all the complex machinery of our boasted civilization, and with its soft fingers stop so effec tively the pompous work of the world. Deep in our hearts, I am sure, we are ad of the enforced interruption to the dull routine of our lives. It was so at school. We might have rejoiced in any happening, however calamitous, from the burning alive of the head master to an epidemic of scarlet fever, that for the time made going to school an absolute impossibility. So the com ing of the snow proclaims a sort of elemental holiday, and however the superficial grownup side of us affect irritation at the state of the streets and fumes and fusses at the blocked trolleys the eternal school boy in us secretly exults and entertains a wild desire to snowball the passers-by and roll in the luscious gathering drifts. Mr. Edward Hart, president of the Silent athletic club of Chicago, ran across an impostor begging on the street. The deaf athlete is a big man physically and persuaded the fakir to visit the nearest police station. Af ter hearing the charge the sergeant ! set him free, meanwhile detaining Mr. Hart for an hour to give the im postor time to make good his escape and work some other locality. That's just what such medieants desire, to work one town and then pass on to work the next. We dump our impostors on surrounding com munities and they dump theirs back on us. This is an unjust tax on the nublic which already pays a tax to sup-port state schools where all 'deaf children under twenty-one learn some useful trade; as a result almost without ex ception the deaf are intelligent, self supporting citizens. This begging by fakirs fosters the erroneous impres sion the deaf are adl alike a class of dependents, hence when one in search of work applies to an employer unfa miliar with the capacities of the deaf, he is generally discriminated against. In these hard times this works a de cided and uncalled for hardship against a deserving- class. Those on the inside have long known that one of the favorite "stalls" of the law breaker L- to re connoitre the scene of a prospective "plant" disguised as a "deaf and dumb" medicant, asking for "funds to secure a mute's education." This in spite of the fact that the state educates its deaf free of charge. The police of Portland, Oregon, ran in an impostor who defied all at temps to get him to admit the decep tion until another officer unexpected ly brought in his pal. Not knowing the situation the latter arrival greet ed the silent one in loud and boister ous language, calling him b his real name, tie was tnen recognized a.s a desperate character wanted for vari ous offenses all over the Northwest. Two yeggs who robbed the post of fice at Flushing, Ohio, of ?l,4 0u, were captured in a haymow January first and the loot recovered. One of the robbers, when searched, had in his pocket a "deaf and dumb" sign show ing hard usage. Several similar in stances have been reported, but it stands to reason that the great ma jority of deaf beggars and criminals pursue their evil way undisturbed. The National Association of the Deaf has a well organized Bureau aiming to suppress this evil. In each state chairmen have been appointed and the 85,000 deaf citizens of Amer ica are clamoring for Legislative en actment making it unlawful for any person to falsely represent himself or herself as blind, deaf, dumb, crippled, or otherwise physically defective, and providing a penalty." The deaf never beg. - The safest thing to do when a so called "mute" peddles or asks funds on some plausible pretext or other is to detain mm wnne some - one sum mons an officer. The police should tnen get a real dear person to expose the imposition and the judge doubt less feeing his crudity insulted will probably impose the limit of the law. Gratitude Still Lives. m 1- te. terestmg specimens are brass and ivory pocket sundials of the 15U1 and 16th centuries. There is also a ring dial which, when held vertically, per mits the sun to thine through a small hole on one side of the rim and regis ter the hour on a scale on the oppo site side. Vertical ard horizontal dial.' from many countries and latitudes, dating from the liith i 20th -enterics, are represented. The Knotted Wick Service. One of the most primitive time re cording devices employed by the Chin ese and Japanese, wa.-; knotted v.icl; about two feet in b ngth, which smouldered without break irg into flame, and indicated the passage of an hour by the time consumer in burning between two knots. King A li n e is ocuiifn wim Having esiamisned a sys tem whereby twelve-inch wax eamfb-. were divided int.o eoual distances; relatively a third of an hour bein:, re o.nred to burn an inch. A esindle .,f this type, bur only ten inoh.5 length, is exhibited in the Mu-vum lection. Phillippe II of Spain is supposed haw. used an oil lamp for indicating time, the decrease in the am,u;,t. of oil being shown by graduations "n the glass reservoir. It was designed espe cially for night use; the graduations ctarted at the top, with the mark 1111, passed downward to XII. and 'then from 1 to VIII, covering the period : winter darkness. A similar lamp is in the National Museum exhibit classi fied as a pewter tim-indicating lamp, marked -for the Injurs nine to six. and was collected in lyOO in Nuremberg by Dr. Samuel I. L.atii;Iey, late secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. Sand and Hour Glasses. Sand glasses are represented by sev en specimens of various types indicat ing Z minutes, one-cpiarter hour, one half hour, and one hour, and one Her man set. of four hour glasses probably of the fourteenth century. The hour- lass is said to be the invention of Luitprand, a. monk of Chartres, who, near the end of the eighth century, re vived the art of trlass blowing. Thesf instruments are. btili popular with many clergymen, and it is understood that one is in daily use in the British House of Commons. Clocks operated by water power date back as far as 800 B. C. in Kgypt, and although their history is some what vague, it is believed that the earliest ones indicated "hours" of un even length, while those evolved dur ing the 17th century and latr were simpler and showed even perb.ds. Clocks of this description, and of this period are known as Clepsydras; one with an alarm attachment was col lected for the Museum by Ur. Langhy in Paris. It consists of a hollow drum. Littleton News-Reporter. Mr. and Mi's. W. A. Harvey of Grove Hill, were in town last Friday. They are profuse in their expressions of appreciation of the many acts of neighborly kindness manifested to them since the misfortunate that took away their home and contents by fire. They had always thought the people in that neighborhood as good as lived but now they think they are the very best people on earth. It was pleas ant to hear him on behalf of himself and family express their heartfelt gratitude to them, one and all. In Formosa' there is a tree between 2,500 and 3,000 years old, and the lowest branch 45 feet from the ground. The tree is a species of cypress, the Japanese "beniki." partly filled with water, suspended from an oblong frame by two cords, the lower ends of which are wrapped about the shaft of the drum. When the cord is wound about the shaft, the drum is at the top of the frame, and if released would descend rapidly, un winding the cord as it goes, were its speed not regulated by the action of the water which flows slowly through a series of seven compartments within the drum, causing a drag or counter balance to the action of gravity. The ends of the shaft act as indexes point ing to the hours marked on the frame. Clocks Appears. The date of the introduction of clocks worked by weights is not de finitely known, but it is supposed that they did not appear until the 13th or 14th century, and that John Megestein of Cologne invented the escapement. The Museum displays a number of these clocks, including a ship's clock which rings "bells" in sea-going style. Portable time pieces appeared short ly after 1500 as the invention of Peter Henlein, of Nuremberg, who employed a long ribbon steel spiing to drive the mechanism of his watch es. The Museum collection of watches and movements numbers several hun dred, and illustrates the development of the mechanical part of the watch, making it possible to compare the xsnrlr if mflnv earlv 1 " - v- - i of this and oth watch -ma ies. ; rs