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THE FARMER AND MECHANIC. ll FARM NEWS iimV V V A YOUN G MAN s JUXOME A FAKMFJi? "31,,. tiiii 31m and Young Women Who Are to Occupy Our Farm II nines siioum iw uie special ton ivni of the. State and the United -ia(es Department of Agriculture Anything Which Tends to Make Family Life Successful in the Open C ountry Lends Not Only Wealth Hut Welfare to the Nation. '. THOMAS FOKSYTII HUNT, Dean of the California College of Agricnl nirv. i'hnso who t:ike charge of land through inheritance usually are re tpjired to assume obligations to other ihi-irs. Thus the young man who thinks of farming is brought face. to Uace v. ith the question of capital. The 'nwriRo young man of brains and edu ' cation has before him the alterna- of accepting a salary of $500 to '31.000 a year or assuming a debt of JS.000 to ? 10.000.. . - A generation ago conamons were vt ry different. With a few dollars to invent in teams and tools a man could i.oiaestead one hundred and sixty j.Tos of land, and often pay for his while investment out of the first crop. To ! sure, thft conditions were primi the. Improvement? had later to be tTiufi'" at eora-iderable expense. These ininrovenicnts are now made. The i pt generation to enter upon th i.tt must have the capital to pay .1 -r the improvements and the rise in rental, l.es-: than a generation :'.,;, .'u Englishman took kup pome uior.sand acres of land in the Pan pile Valley. The University of f'.ini.i hu obtained llf ty-f iir hun- ;tfr by the gift f Mr. Kear- Miich o? it rents for fifteen dol ,i y at cash rent. T do not know Mr. Kearney paid for this land, p s a safe guess that he got a jr. fee simple for less than fifteen , per acre. The extensive and ..nU ir.iprov ouieuts he put on this a.'.vo raised us value. new cr.ttion must pay the new" price to i. :!e this or similar land. This is operative banks or credit associations are analyzed they are found to be all uased upon a few common feature namely, character, supervision txA helpfulness. Wallace and Wilsn vtntr thus: 'These are. t"U J e lit.- : but ti ll . U.U f- r-.il reason why the subject of : i.' iu credit has assumed national im-L'.'io-. Speaking broadly, it is not found mamlr the poorest of the poor, in sections where it would be hard to find an muniuuill VVnO COUld rP PntttlcH n, credit at any bank. They are simply associations of farmers of the highest una.ract.er ior thev havs no eredit ex cept for integrity. They borrow money at three Der Cent find lnnn it 011 -v themselves at about tour ner rent j - - lui prouueuve purposes onlv and siih jeci xo a supervision by a committee oi uie association. The two feature? tnat characterize these credit assn ciations are unlimited liability and su pervision. JH,ach member is liable for iti ucuis ui tnu association; ana a committee of the association deter mines whether the proposed borrower wne io oorrow ior productive pur poses, sees to it that he purchases wisely, and that he proceeds properly n.ii me animai or tne ming pur chased with the borrowed money. For example, if it is proposed to buy a cow, the committee determines wheth er he needs a cow, then sees that he makes a good purchase and then that he cares for the cow properly." It is my opinion that if we are to inaugurate a successful system of farm credit, we should try to forget the methods employed by credit as sociations in Europe. What we should do is to try to comprehend the prim ciples employed and seek to adapt them to American ideals, customs, and governmental methods. What is wanted is some method by which young men who wish to be come farmers may offer evidence of ability, thrift, and character. There is wanted some guarantee that the money will be used for productive purposes and suificient supervision to determine, that the money will be wisely expended. What is needed is some basis on which educated, hard-working, hon est young men between the ages oi twenty-one and thirty may obtain a reasonable capital with which to make a home in the open country. What is ments of the mortgagors now are gen erally the same each vear. a larirer portion of the sum going towards principal and a smaller towards in terest a,s the principal is gradually re duced. I or instance, it is nsrured that a farmer having a loan at 4.3 per cent and paying each vear C.SG nor cent would wipe out the lean in twenty five years. This practice, called nmnr- tization. is of the greatest value to farmers, for it makes their payments vjii pimcujiti consistent iin ineir in come expended on agricultural im- provements. So long as the farmer meets these annual payments the mortgage will not be foreclosed. Also, the interest rate can never 5- raised during the life of the loan. "Thus we see that such a system reduces interest rates, makes the de mands upon the farmer consistent with his income, eliminates commis sions, protects him from foreclosure and from an advance of interest rates. It changes a mortgage from a bur densome debt to an advantageous form of credit an investment.'' The postal denosits arfele. fnd tr saving banks at two per cent. The State loans its surplus at two per cent. Suppose a young man, having saved one thousand dollars, could go to the State or to the United States and borrow four thousand dollars not at two per cent but at three per .cent. If he should pay six per cent on this amount, or two hundred and fortv dollars annually, at the end of twenty five years, approximately, he would ncivt uautcitfu me principal and in- j terest. Will there not be objections to tiiis plan? Most assuredly. One objec tion will be that it may tend to re duce the value of money. It is just as wei lto understand the fundamen tal problem. If you happen to raise prunes you are naturally much op posed to anything that would tend to reduce the price of prunes. If a cattle-raiser, you do not look with favor upon the introduction of Aus tralian beef. Tn like manner the ban ker who loans money at ten per cent under certain conditions, to buy cows, will not become enthusiastic over a system which would permit a man to pay off principal and interest in twenty-live years at. the rate of six per cent. But the banker is not the only person interested. Every person who carries life insurance or has money in the savings banks is con cerned. The farmers of the United demand that this is so, a way will b found by which money may be loaned to individuals as well as to banks and upon substantially equal terms. Extract from a paper read before th meeting of the i'atrn of Husbandry of California. SI MACHINERY Nl .CI nv (1U K. W. l Al'KOT.) States are as a class money lenders. They are the principal source of capi tal for young men who are beginning to farm. This is one of several rea sons why the credit banks -of Europe I .fiMi l ' -fr BIT . Aft AGUlCUIiTURATj IIAUIi, UNIYEKS1TY OF C AMFOUIA. ?an of forav-tive tliat needs farm! "t 'lit. It is the man of twenty-five hi needs it. It is doubtful whether fn. Kind of farm credit i am about to i'ropoo should be given to any man r thirty years of age. Mo.xt of the business of the world 'nducled on credit. All the great b isiness undertakings require credit. .M.,re than fifty thousand people, more 'Inn half of them women, have in '"feet loaned money to a single rail '" :il company. Technicallyl they are "i kboblers. Virtually it amounts to '- loan. Farming is different only in Miring refinancing at more frequent intervals through young men who in nature of the case can have little -lit. It is this lack of credit that tce3 them into wage-earning occu pations. It is this lack of credit that Prevents tluse who do undertake "arming frfrn putting into it the capi tal need to get the best results J -xery generation is going to find it move difficult to till the soil properly. nless Sooie worknhle method of 'naiicing the land can be found. Shortly before his death, while tes uing before a congressional com nntW J. Piernont Mo'rean startled bis countrymen by announcing that lie yonsidered character to be ttie chief -eeurny. tie saitl tie had loaned as oh as a million dollars to a single man on this xecnritv .nlorie. When vario';? system;7 $f Etropenn co tho needed is some method of replacing he opportunity which formerly ex sted under the Homestead Act. No young man can obtain employ ment in the. government service witn- out passing a civil service examina tion. No person can teach in the public school without a teacher's cer tificate. No physicians or pharma cist may practice his profession unless he shows a certain technical knowl edge. No man can occupy the pulpit without demonstrating his fitness. Suppose a young man could pass an examination in agriculture, suppose he could present evidence of practical farm experience, suppose he had ac tually earned and saved a given amount of money, suppose he had a reputation for honesty and good hab its, why should not the State lend him money on terms similar to those on which the State now keeps six million dollars on deposit in banks, or why should not the United States loan its postal deposits on terms similar to those on which it now loans it to sav ing banks. Senator Fleacher, referring to cred it associations, in Moody's Magazine ys : "Thia ic the first advantage brought bv such associations cheaper inter est rates. Each year the farmer is required to pay, besides the interest, a certain percentage, towards reducing the nrincioar of the loan. The pay- The laborer in organization or of maintaining No such oppor- the open country. ou to assume that may not be applicable to American conditions. Undoubtedly the present silly methods both in receiving and handling postal deposits was caused by the fear that reasonable methods would reduce the value of money. The whole question is one between the re wards of capital as compared with the rewards of labor, the city has, through otherwise, a method the rewards of labor. tunitv exists in I do not ask y there would be no difficulties in the execution of this plan. I merely de sire to convince you that some such method would be worth while. I am perfectly familiar with the arguments that have been used and wiil be used, why the United States and the State may loan money to Danns ana may not loan it to individuals. My re- dIv to all these arguments is that ! we have before us a matter of the deepest national concern. If men of brains and character, in the future as in the past, are to cultivate the land, they must have an even chance with their wage-earning brothers. Every man is going to try self and family a comfortable home If he deems he cannot start with an even chance on a farm, he will go elsewhere. This is not a plan to help the farmer, it is a plan to help the nation. When the people come to tm- As timeliness is the fut esenti.l of successful sprayine. .-v is suitable ma chinery the rirst efent:al of good work. Jr. the sejectbuj of a spraying outi-t there are several points That should bi coMsidered. The type suit able to the requirements of the or chard in which it is to be used, whether a hnd pump i ; sufficient or whether a power outfit i required; the accessories, such as nozzles, rod. agitators, tanks, etc.. are all impor tant details in the make-up of a com plete outfit. There are some dozen or fifteen re liable concerns which manufacture spray machines. Each year marly every- ones of tiiese establishment adds soiti- improvement which tends to facilitate and lighten the v. oi k of spraying. Only the very best should be selected, owing to the very limited time for making some of the most im portant r-pplieations, it is necessary to take advantnge of every possible con venience for facilitating the work. Wagon tanks of two hundred gal lons capacity or more should be about five to six reef long, have a round hot ton and a flat top. When made of cypress they retail at from fifteen to twenty dollars. Cocoanut-oil barrels or wine casks also make rood tanks for home-made outfits. For power outfits two hundred gallon tanks are the most convenient size. Earger tanks are frequently used but are likely to cause delay from overload. The agitation is on1 of the impor tant essentials of every 'outfit, whether operated by hand or power. liarrel pumps usually have an agitator at tached but with tank pump and power outfits the agita.tor must be consid ered in connection with the tank. The agitators furnished with power outfits are usually one of two types, of which the propeller type is by all odds the more desirable-. It consists of an iron shaft ev ending lengthwise of the tank, on whicha re three or four, preferably four, propellor-like paddles. It is oper ated by means of a chain and a sprocket-wheel on one end of the main siiaft of or by a gear to the engine. The agitator revolves rapidly, keeping the concerns of the tank thoroughly aeitated and the parts of the mixture likely to settle evenly distributed throughout. With some outfits it is operated by hand by means of an up right lever; with others, by means of a pit-ton road attached to the pump or geared to the engine and working through a stuffing box in the end of tim ro.-.tr Tliis n ilftt or answers tairly well for Bordeaux mixture or arsenate of lead but it is not sufficient to keep 'either Paris green or self-boiled lini"- I sulphur well in suspension. For large tank pumps operated by hand the propeller agitator may be nnnwnipntlv operated bv" means of a shaft fitted, with a sprocket-wheel and crank, attached to the top of the tank and running paralll wih the agitator shaft. This is one serious? objection to the use of agitators operated by hand and that is the impossibility of getting men to appreciate the neces sity of constant and vigorous agita tion. . Spraying machines which get their pummng power from the wagon wheel ar entirely inadequate to the present requirements for orchard spraying and fef unsatisfactory where the size of the trees necessitates stopping in or ,tr... An, t norm orb work. These1 ma- phinM ore very useful, however, toes, tomatoes; and me iik. Tbo choice of a spraying mmt n proverned largely by the of the orchard and the conditions under which it is to be used. In an orchard cf fifteen acres, if the trees nre ten vears oiu or juoie, a. i-w., machine will soon pay for ithp fcnvinsr ol labor ana tne pre fit 3 for more effective spraying. ! so in rr- orchards there should be a ! sufficient number of machines to make for machine. size i itself in increased or be outfits. j ,1 -jtmliratinn in the COUTSe OI six eight days if best results are i eau.eo. In tVe selection of power aside from efficiency, the chief points to h considered are weight, construc tion, mounting with reference to con venience of handling in the fields argt. the accessories, such as agitators, rods, hose, nozzles, etc. Aside irom the weight there is litle difference in the desirability of the efficiency of stand ard makes, excepting as certain :ea tures of a particular machine may ap peal to different individuals. Immature Breeding. By breeding the heifer at less than two years of age you are sure of get tine her to producing something at art early age. but you are also sure that v- i-oq iion stunted oerore sua reached maturity; that her calf will or. as large and vigorous as it i.v.oni.i he and that she cannot possibly ro-.-,.iuee ns much milk as she would read she been bred at a period w canprMty for production to" make for him- ; nearer perfect development. when was For streams ordinarily carrying lit tle water, but subjected to floods, a Kansan has designed a concrete bridge which high water can pass over without damaging the structure. I. ' 1 : ?