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1 i ii Si 'I i 3M ' j : .li; 0 t , ' ii - H - I, i . ii i : k !; M -I i. i i i t : I I,' j "i '.i i 1 I 1 i 1 . .i 1 1 4 , : I : : . t , t i ' i 4 ji ;" I; THE AND MECHANIC. f .....- i I X )NT I tOLLI X C! TTIC 1lt.cl CKDAIt ItCST DISI.ASL HOW TO GROW A BOSTON FERX, By II. S. ItKID. ri L.i..r ruvt t,f a utiles is more t i t ..-.i It, t)i :istern an ...mni r,..rti.,; of th United States, It is reported from New Hamp; v,.rti fV.roiimi. on the Atlantic hoard nd w-siward as far as apple." Ull'J or hire sea- lowa is not The Boston fern is one of the oldest and best known varieties; owing to its graceful, drooping nam oi it is sometimes cauea tne oUw..... fern " One immense plant seen by the writer is about five years old and fronds whicn measure vu from tip to tip- ,T- I,'t- hn.j some eir-bt feet .id f......-l t-.-i't.t.t in r'LFiul)H rdar is vry ahunaani m - - . . ... vtrn srates. ami in tnose -ctioiu ther is a ureal thn ili-a.-e thaii in any Th. nrinripal rt ason h- fa'-t, Ihut. al fi.'i ri. e winds. va- or less in esti- dal more of other portion. for this lies m it,' with the ahun- oi cedar trees, tne iar;-'e vum- ippk- nrehar.js contain maiiv . . .;,.. 1 1 . -l t' cue. varieties wm n ar- uiuimi, reptjhle t,, the disease. Orchards in the vicinity of cedar thickets have usually differed more severely than those which are sitmued at some dis tance The injury is inure marked if the orchard is on the leeward side of the cedar thickets, where the ,.r..- of iu disease may be contin- i.nllv t.orne in bv prevailing but all orchards of susceptible f am.les suffer more from the o-diir rust. Two years afro, nn..nfi-ii los to apple, growea k mtoio of Viriinia alone was mated to be upwards of one-half mil lion dollar, and this did not take into account the loss due to weakening of the trers and to impairing the vitality of the fruit buds for the following: year, which would surely diminish each pucceedlim crop. The cedar trees in the vicinity of orchards develop, during the winter, and early spring, a lawe num be of rrky k-aWh, which are common ly spoken ( as cedar apples.- These Kails contain the winter spores and elowly mature during the warm days of late winter and early spring. When the weathe becomes warm enough and there is abundant moisture pres ent, the cedar apples thrust out many gelatinous tendrils, tfo long as the ge latinous material is damp the spores do not escape to any extent, but, if bright, sunny days with brisk winds fniinw. the waterv tendrils are dried and the spores are blown away from " the cedar apples. The wind, of couse. blows these spores where it lists, but only those which are carried to apple trees tind conditions which are. suit ed to their germination and future development. How fa these spores may be carried has never ben definitely determined! Our observations and studies go to Bhow, however, that if an orchard is one-half mile from the cedar the amount of rust infestion is usually not great enough to be a serious injury to the orchard. Any cedar trees which are cut afte March fist should be burned, since they retain the ability to cause Infection for two months. o m : or Tin: miooi sow. As the breeding season approaches H is necessary to have the sows In the best of condition. Animals in tended for breeding purposes should be matured but not fattened: if im mature animals are to be used at all, they should be at least eight months old before being bred. During pregnancy, sows should have abundant exercise and a variety of feed. During th1 winter months, un less extra care be taken, brood sows are particularly liable to lie in their quarters and become inactive. Kffort should be made to induce them to exercise. ..This may be accomplished by hainp them travel around the barnyard for feed, or by housing them Home distance from their feeding place, or by making them root for grain scattered under litter on a barn r flied tloor. They should not be 1 'If I THE PANAMAIANS ARE A LOT OF MONGRELS, LAZY AND SHIFTLESS While They Have the Reputation of Being Treacher ous They Showed Their Best Side to the Visitor From the Great Northern to Panama City A Man Who Spoke Half a Dozen Languages An Obliging Conductor The Statesmen of Panama j Go in For Glitter and Tinsel, and Are Riotously j Spendthrift With the People's Money Panama j Town a Type of the Old Spanish City. j iy HOWARD A. BANKS j J and fever germs both Five-Year-OM Boston Fern, Some of the Jonsrcst Fronds of Which Measure Over Kight Feet from Tip to Tip. been nourished about twice a week with a wenk solution of "fish scrap" water. The "scrap" referred to, is obtained from a "menhaden" factory, and is the dry product after the oil has been extracted from the fish. To ob tain the best results, it is well to grind the scrap very fine, add about two tablespoonful to a gallon of wa ter, which must be well stirred before the necessary portion is applied to the soil. Generally speaking, the crowns of all ferns should be kept well above the earth which should be kept quite damp, but not sodden Very little spraying of the foliage is advisable, as the plants are nourished almost entirely from the roots. Young and tender plants must be shielded from heavy rains and strong winds. Maiden hair ferns need especial care, for if once permitted to become very dry, the fronds shrivel quickly; they must also be kept from a gas neater or lighted rooms. In potting all plants it is well to put a piece of coarse muslin in the bottom of the pot be fore putting in bits of stone. This keeps the drainage good and prevents the earth from washing away. PRICES OF SPECTACIS. 7 " S 1 sentiment in ' vl j making advs C. F. God( j liam street. AlirtMMl of CMd Cwiforinatioii. given too much of any feed. If excessively fed, ticularly objectionable. one kind of com is par- to Proper Distance for Planting. Currants and gooseberries, three rour reet apart. Raspberries and blacklverries, three to live by four to seven feet apart. Strawberries for field culture, one to Iwo by three to four feet apart. Strawberries, garden culture, one to two feet apart. Some Crops! Secretary Houston of the depart ment of agriculture, has announced that the value of all farm crops, farm animal products, and farm animals Hold and slaughtered aggregated $9,872,936,000 . That was $83,000,000 more than the grand total for 1913 the previous record year, and more than double the value of all farm product In 1899. Retail Buyer Will Not Be Affected By the New Advance. New York Times. The action of the manufacturers of optical lenses in advancing prices from 25 to 30 per cent to wholesale and re tail dealers will probably, it wras said yesterday, not affect for the present prices at which the public has been buying spectacles and eyeglasses. Re tail opticians seen yesterday, among them some operating their own grind ing plants, do not appear anxious to aud to the higher cost of seeing. The in the trade is to go slow in ances to the user. oddard, a lawyer, of 15 Wil- acting as a champion of the army of users of spectacles and eyeglasses, has written The Times pointing out why he thinks the retail opticians are not justified in making an advance in price to the user com mensurate with the raise made by the manufacturer. Mr. Goddard says: "The really interesting fact, which your news gatherer failed to mentionis that the optical lens for which, ground to prescription, the wearer now pays his optician $1.50, costs the optician at wholesale from one and a half to three cents. The announced advance will. at the maximum, advance that cost from, say. two and a quarter to four and a half cents." Retail opticians, commenting on Mr. Goddard's letter, said that the writer's figures and deductions refer to low grade lense. According to the opti- cians, it is a common experience ror a retailer to pay 45 cents to the manu facturer for a rough lens slab, while some come as high as $7.50 each. The latter, however .are polished and otherwise finished, although not com pleted. Should the retailers follow the lead of the manufacturers and ad vance the higher grades of lenses t the consumer, prices, it is said, might exceed the figures quoted by The Times correspondent, but at present prices are likely to remain stationary. The books on "Panama and Its People," and similar titles, are not enthusiastic over the Panamans They describe the men as selfish and lazy and the women as frowsy and un social. The people on our boat seem ed to concur in this opinion. The Sweet Girl Graduate spoke represen tatively when she said, looking over at the slimv jungle around Gatun Lake where reptiles have their home: "Like country, like peopl treacherous." I have an opinion that the old view of hostility and prejudice to the Pan- amanans will have to be revised. While a passing look-in such as we had could not be absolutely convinc ing, I confess that I liked the mon grel folk of Panama. I did shop ping in their stores and walked with them in their narrow- streets and sat with them in their plazas and rode with them in their street cars and was always treated with courtesy. A Panama Linguist. One man was particularly inter esting. He was yellow skinned and tall and said he was "of Danish ex traction." I fancied there wras a lib eral infusion too, of Spanish blood in his veins, though he did not boast of it. lie said that he could con ! verse readily in a number of lan guages Danish, Norwegian, "Russian-Finnish," German, French, Span ish and English. He certainly spoke correct English. I drew him out to talk about things in general. "Panama City," said he, in an out burst of genuine enthusiasm, "owes a debt of gratitude to the United States. This place was dead before the United States came here. It has taken on new life since you came. You have cleaned up our city. You have driven away sickness and dis. ease. You have given us sewers and drainage, and are treating us to keep the laws of health. You have done us much good." Every other store in Panama City is a saloon. I said to this gentle man: "You seem to have plenty of liquor establishments," and he re plied: "Yes, about 95 per cent of them ought to be closed up." "Best Balboa Beer" was what every one of the shops claimed to sell. One saw that sign everywhere. With the li quor flowing at it does, I saw a great many people drinking, but none drunk or staggering. Flirting Senoritas. I bought a very pretty cloth flow er an imitation of a pink rose-bud from a black skinned senorita who had a basketful of them. I pinned it in my buttonhole, and all through the streets that evening women-folk smiled pleasantly at me, showing rows oi imiK wnite teetn, ana some 3 A. 1 1 3 1 nouueu meir neaas Knowingly, as much as to intimate that it must have been pinned there by some girl I did not understand at first why 1 was aiiracunt? mis notice out I sun. guessed the answer Ka a.-- t m Gr-.,f have Twenty-five dollars "for scrubbing of the tombstones of my neighbors in the graveyard" was one of the peculiar bequests In the will of Mrs. Margaret IL Schmidt, on file for probate In Belleville, HI. Wood row Makes 'Km Work. Washington Star. People who think that all Congress men have to do is to sit around Wash ington and tell stories are getting scarcer every year. Last year was Germany's greatest In the prodw:tion of coal and Iron. pose L aright. In the Plaza of Santa Anna, beau tiruiiy tiled and a paradise of palms ana colored Mowers, I spoke to a tall, ouu-iauiicu xiiti.ii ui uie ooum, cool in his linen suit and his wide-brimmed Manama hat. He was sedate and dig nilied but answered every question. On the Street Car. "wi uo.y x passea tne same piaza in a street car. The conductor was a snort stocky Panamaian. I asked him the name of a wide branching tree georgous with scarlet oiossoiiis. jtie toia me. I forget the name now. cut ne did not fail of nis own accord after this to point out what he thoutrht would ho of in terest to a stranger as the car squeez- eu syeeauy too speedily through "' w streets, we was a on too aeoonair a little too fa miliar. a Dare-neaded woman of 6"i6ri-tahe Hue carrying a baby of me same tint Doarded the car and ac nerseit opposite to me. "Oh you like the Americano, I see." said me conductor, and laughed heartily .v o junc. a ue woman took tice of it. O VTA AM3 . 7" dUU oaiconies were c,n""-en, ranging in vv Aium o,acK to yellow. The houses are usually two-storied with . .ULr uaacony up-sairs. They have no windows. The city seems to be vviiy panisn, and Is picturesque. ir '"..V S'OTxnn and the .iir", "aQ emptied tourists vjiy, ana tne Manama hat shops were full of them. I beautifully woven Panama at which wrould have easily been $15.00 at home. The Panama Gentry. The Panaman, as pleasant was to the tourists of the Northern, is said to share the pn. verbial hatred of the Mexican an.i the South American to the "Gringo." There are two social shades of ea in the upper classes the descenda i.l of the Conquistadoes, who usually de pend upon land estates, which gm:-.f-cattle, for their incomes; and fami lies with foreign blood in their veins whose wealth comes from indutru; sources. These two classes furnish the politicians -or x-'anama. rne par ties are the Liberal and Conservative, and their political animosities are described as being very bitter, ex tending even to society. The tenden cy in the Panama law-making b.niy is to squander public funds, as to .i the grand thing. Panama offers unusual facilities- ! water transportation. Its coast lines' are long, and its short rivers arf usually navigable. Good roads built from the ports back into the interior would open the country to wonderful development in lumbering, cattle grazing, mining, fruit-growing, etc. But Panama misses the point. In 1910 the National Assembly voted to tie up the reserve capital of t he country in an expensive railroad whose usfulness was doubtful. it has wasted money in national thea tres and national universities, which make an imposing appearance, but rarely ever see a performance" or draw an exceedingly limited numb - of students. The Shiftless Masses. Below these two classes of gentry. are the great masses of the people. They are shiftless and lazy. There is a great deal of free land and many of the people squat where they please. There are two breeds of In dians, the Cholos and the San Bias The former have interbred with t he- peoples who have emigrated to the. Isthmus, but the latter. 20,000 strong. who are in the northeastern nart of the country, boast that they have never been conquered, and that "no San Bias woman has borne a half breed and no San Bias man has fath- there a mongrel." Except for tbi strange tribe, as jealous of their ra- cial integrity as the Jews, it is said that no native of Panama is of mir blood. The Exploiting Foreigner. Too lazy to make the most of th richness of natural resource at their doors, the Panamans have left it to the foreigner to exploit their coun try. on every systematically culti vated farm, a foreicnor is th fore man. The religion is Roman Catholic. but it is said that only the women are very religious. The men are said to be for the most part free think ens. The vast bulk of the congregations are made lin nf u-nmon T)iov lnv their seistas, or fiestas, and we had the privilege of seeing a fiesta procession, largely composed of gaily dressed children, parading through the streets of the city of Panama at night singing anthems to the beat of a. monotonous drum. I liked what I saw of these simolfc children of the far South. They have a lone: road to tmvpi t yp-hpr plains of civilization, but it RPems to me there is outcome in them. SMOKING IN CHURCH. no no- decidedly Strenuous Kfforts Needed to Stop U- or Weed. London Express. Mr. Spurgeon confessed to a love for a good Doctor Parr, when vicar of Hatton. smoked regularly in the vestry during ie nymn Deiore the sermon. It was in the KfwntntVi ontnr however, that strenuous efforts were needed to stoD the use of t Vi wAfl in church. The CamhHd for example, declared ::that no graduate, scholler, or student nre- sume to take tobarrn in st -vr-jT-v'c Church pelhnge the Universitie." in America the nntv-4f ioo irnt further. The Puritans enacted that any one smokine on tv Rahhath 'within two milen of i a mAoHrc house shall i y twelve per.ee." Per haps the most striking characteristics t, saivauonists who have been making London picturesque is that not '.me vi. mem smokes.