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THE AND MECHANIC.
f .....- i
I X )NT I tOLLI X C! TTIC 1lt.cl
CKDAIt ItCST DISI.ASL
HOW TO GROW A BOSTON FERX,
By II. S. ItKID.
ri L.i..r ruvt t,f a utiles is more
t i t ..-.i It, t)i :istern an
...mni r,..rti.,; of th United States,
It is reported from New Hamp;
v,.rti fV.roiimi. on the Atlantic
hoard nd w-siward as far as
The Boston fern is one of the oldest
and best known varieties; owing to
its graceful, drooping nam oi
it is sometimes cauea tne oUw.....
fern " One immense plant seen by
the writer is about five years old and
fronds whicn measure vu
from tip to tip- ,T- I,'t-
f......-l t-.-i't.t.t in r'LFiul)H
rdar is vry ahunaani m - -
. . ... vtrn srates. ami in tnose
-ctioiu ther is a ureal
thn ili-a.-e thaii in any
Th. nrinripal rt ason
h- fa'-t, Ihut. al
fi.'i ri. e
dal more of
for this lies m
it,' with the ahun-
oi cedar trees, tne iar;-'e vum-
ippk- nrehar.js contain maiiv
. . .;,.. 1 1 . -l t' cue.
varieties wm n ar- uiuimi,
reptjhle t,, the disease. Orchards in
the vicinity of cedar thickets have
usually differed more severely than
those which are sitmued at some dis
tance The injury is inure marked if
the orchard is on the leeward side
of the cedar thickets, where the
,.r..- of iu disease may be contin-
i.nllv t.orne in bv prevailing
but all orchards of susceptible
f am.les suffer more
from the o-diir rust. Two years afro,
nn..nfi-ii los to apple, growea
k mtoio of Viriinia alone was
mated to be upwards of one-half mil
lion dollar, and this did not take into
account the loss due to weakening of
the trers and to impairing the vitality
of the fruit buds for the following:
year, which would surely diminish
each pucceedlim crop.
The cedar trees in the vicinity of
orchards develop, during the
winter, and early spring, a lawe num
be of rrky k-aWh, which are common
ly spoken ( as cedar apples.- These
Kails contain the winter spores and
elowly mature during the warm days
of late winter and early spring. When
the weathe becomes warm enough
and there is abundant moisture pres
ent, the cedar apples thrust out many
gelatinous tendrils, tfo long as the ge
latinous material is damp the spores
do not escape to any extent, but, if
bright, sunny days with brisk winds
fniinw. the waterv tendrils are dried
and the spores are blown away from
" the cedar apples. The wind, of couse.
blows these spores where it lists, but
only those which are carried to apple
trees tind conditions which are. suit
ed to their germination and future
How fa these spores may be carried
has never ben definitely determined!
Our observations and studies go to
Bhow, however, that if an orchard is
one-half mile from the cedar the
amount of rust infestion is usually not
great enough to be a serious injury to
the orchard. Any cedar trees which
are cut afte March fist should be
burned, since they retain the ability
to cause Infection for two months.
o m : or Tin: miooi sow.
As the breeding season approaches
H is necessary to have the sows In
the best of condition. Animals in
tended for breeding purposes should
be matured but not fattened: if im
mature animals are to be used at all,
they should be at least eight months
old before being bred.
During pregnancy, sows should have
abundant exercise and a variety of
feed. During th1 winter months, un
less extra care be taken, brood sows
are particularly liable to lie in their
quarters and become inactive. Kffort
should be made to induce them to
exercise. ..This may be accomplished
by hainp them travel around the
barnyard for feed, or by housing them
Home distance from their feeding
place, or by making them root for
grain scattered under litter on a barn
r flied tloor. They should not be
THE PANAMAIANS ARE A LOT OF
MONGRELS, LAZY AND SHIFTLESS
While They Have the Reputation of Being Treacher
ous They Showed Their Best Side to the Visitor
From the Great Northern to Panama City A
Man Who Spoke Half a Dozen Languages An
Obliging Conductor The Statesmen of Panama j
Go in For Glitter and Tinsel, and Are Riotously j
Spendthrift With the People's Money Panama j
Town a Type of the Old Spanish City. j
iy HOWARD A. BANKS j
and fever germs
Five-Year-OM Boston Fern, Some
of the Jonsrcst Fronds of Which
Measure Over Kight Feet from Tip
been nourished about twice a week
with a wenk solution of "fish scrap"
The "scrap" referred to, is obtained
from a "menhaden" factory, and is
the dry product after the oil has
been extracted from the fish. To ob
tain the best results, it is well to
grind the scrap very fine, add about
two tablespoonful to a gallon of wa
ter, which must be well stirred before
the necessary portion is applied to the
Generally speaking, the crowns of
all ferns should be kept well above
the earth which should be kept quite
damp, but not sodden Very little
spraying of the foliage is advisable,
as the plants are nourished almost
entirely from the roots. Young and
tender plants must be shielded from
heavy rains and strong winds. Maiden
hair ferns need especial care, for if
once permitted to become very dry,
the fronds shrivel quickly; they must
also be kept from a gas neater or
lighted rooms. In potting all plants
it is well to put a piece of coarse
muslin in the bottom of the pot be
fore putting in bits of stone. This
keeps the drainage good and prevents
the earth from washing away.
PRICES OF SPECTACIS.
" S 1 sentiment in
' vl j making advs
C. F. God(
j liam street.
AlirtMMl of CMd Cwiforinatioii.
given too much of any
feed. If excessively fed,
one kind of
com is par-
Proper Distance for Planting.
Currants and gooseberries, three
rour reet apart.
Raspberries and blacklverries, three
to live by four to seven feet apart.
Strawberries for field culture, one to
Iwo by three to four feet apart.
Strawberries, garden culture, one
to two feet apart.
Secretary Houston of the depart
ment of agriculture, has announced
that the value of all farm crops, farm
animal products, and farm animals
Hold and slaughtered aggregated
$9,872,936,000 . That was $83,000,000
more than the grand total for 1913
the previous record year, and more
than double the value of all farm
product In 1899.
Retail Buyer Will Not Be Affected By
the New Advance.
New York Times.
The action of the manufacturers of
optical lenses in advancing prices from
25 to 30 per cent to wholesale and re
tail dealers will probably, it wras said
yesterday, not affect for the present
prices at which the public has been
buying spectacles and eyeglasses. Re
tail opticians seen yesterday, among
them some operating their own grind
ing plants, do not appear anxious to
aud to the higher cost of seeing. The
in the trade is to go slow in
ances to the user.
oddard, a lawyer, of 15 Wil-
acting as a champion of
the army of users of spectacles and
eyeglasses, has written The Times
pointing out why he thinks the retail
opticians are not justified in making
an advance in price to the user com
mensurate with the raise made by the
manufacturer. Mr. Goddard says:
"The really interesting fact, which
your news gatherer failed to mentionis
that the optical lens for which, ground
to prescription, the wearer now pays
his optician $1.50, costs the optician at
wholesale from one and a half to three
cents. The announced advance will.
at the maximum, advance that cost
from, say. two and a quarter to four
and a half cents."
Retail opticians, commenting on Mr.
Goddard's letter, said that the writer's
figures and deductions refer to low
grade lense. According to the opti-
cians, it is a common experience ror a
retailer to pay 45 cents to the manu
facturer for a rough lens slab, while
some come as high as $7.50 each. The
latter, however .are polished and
otherwise finished, although not com
pleted. Should the retailers follow the
lead of the manufacturers and ad
vance the higher grades of lenses t
the consumer, prices, it is said, might
exceed the figures quoted by The
Times correspondent, but at present
prices are likely to remain stationary.
The books on "Panama and Its
People," and similar titles, are not
enthusiastic over the Panamans
They describe the men as selfish and
lazy and the women as frowsy and un
social. The people on our boat seem
ed to concur in this opinion. The
Sweet Girl Graduate spoke represen
tatively when she said, looking over
at the slimv jungle around Gatun
Lake where reptiles
have their home:
"Like country, like peopl
I have an opinion that the old view
of hostility and prejudice to the Pan-
amanans will have to be revised.
While a passing look-in such as we
had could not be absolutely convinc
ing, I confess that I liked the mon
grel folk of Panama. I did shop
ping in their stores and walked with
them in their narrow- streets and sat
with them in their plazas and rode
with them in their street cars and
was always treated with courtesy.
A Panama Linguist.
One man was particularly inter
esting. He was yellow skinned and
tall and said he was "of Danish ex
traction." I fancied there wras a lib
eral infusion too, of Spanish blood in
his veins, though he did not boast
of it. lie said that he could con
! verse readily in a number of lan
guages Danish, Norwegian, "Russian-Finnish,"
German, French, Span
ish and English. He certainly spoke
correct English. I drew him out to
talk about things in general.
"Panama City," said he, in an out
burst of genuine enthusiasm, "owes
a debt of gratitude to the United
States. This place was dead before
the United States came here. It has
taken on new life since you came.
You have cleaned up our city. You
have driven away sickness and dis.
ease. You have given us sewers and
drainage, and are treating us to keep
the laws of health. You have done
us much good."
Every other store in Panama City
is a saloon. I said to this gentle
man: "You seem to have plenty of
liquor establishments," and he re
plied: "Yes, about 95 per cent of
them ought to be closed up." "Best
Balboa Beer" was what every one of
the shops claimed to sell. One saw
that sign everywhere. With the li
quor flowing at it does, I saw a great
many people drinking, but none
drunk or staggering.
I bought a very pretty cloth flow
er an imitation of a pink rose-bud
from a black skinned senorita who
had a basketful of them. I pinned
it in my buttonhole, and all through
the streets that evening women-folk
smiled pleasantly at me, showing
rows oi imiK wnite teetn, ana some
3 A. 1 1 3 1
nouueu meir neaas Knowingly, as
much as to intimate that it must
have been pinned there by some girl
I did not understand at first why 1
was aiiracunt? mis notice out I sun.
guessed the answer
a.-- t m
Twenty-five dollars "for scrubbing
of the tombstones of my neighbors in
the graveyard" was one of the peculiar
bequests In the will of Mrs. Margaret
IL Schmidt, on file for probate In
Wood row Makes 'Km Work.
People who think that all Congress
men have to do is to sit around Wash
ington and tell stories are getting
scarcer every year.
Last year was Germany's greatest
In the prodw:tion of coal and Iron.
In the Plaza of Santa Anna, beau
tiruiiy tiled and a paradise of palms
ana colored Mowers, I spoke to a tall,
ouu-iauiicu xiiti.ii ui uie ooum, cool in
his linen suit and his wide-brimmed
Manama hat. He was sedate and dig
nilied but answered every question.
On the Street Car.
"wi uo.y x passea tne same
piaza in a street car. The conductor
was a snort stocky Panamaian. I
asked him the name of a wide
branching tree georgous with scarlet
oiossoiiis. jtie toia me. I forget the
name now. cut ne did not fail of
nis own accord after this to point
out what he thoutrht would ho of in
terest to a stranger as the car squeez-
eu syeeauy too speedily through
"' w streets, we was
a on too aeoonair a little too fa
miliar. a Dare-neaded woman of
6"i6ri-tahe Hue carrying a baby of
me same tint Doarded the car and
ac nerseit opposite to me. "Oh
you like the Americano, I see." said
me conductor, and laughed heartily
.v o junc. a ue woman took
tice of it.
O VTA AM3
. 7" dUU oaiconies were
c,n""-en, ranging in
vv Aium o,acK to yellow. The
houses are usually two-storied with
. .ULr uaacony up-sairs. They have
no windows. The city seems to be
vviiy panisn, and Is
ir '"..V S'OTxnn and the
.iir", "aQ emptied tourists
vjiy, ana tne Manama hat
shops were full of them. I
beautifully woven Panama at
which wrould have easily been
$15.00 at home.
The Panama Gentry.
The Panaman, as pleasant
was to the tourists of the
Northern, is said to share the pn.
verbial hatred of the Mexican an.i
the South American to the "Gringo."
There are two social shades of ea
in the upper classes the descenda i.l
of the Conquistadoes, who usually de
pend upon land estates, which gm:-.f-cattle,
for their incomes; and fami
lies with foreign blood in their veins
whose wealth comes from indutru;
sources. These two classes furnish
the politicians -or x-'anama. rne par
ties are the Liberal and Conservative,
and their political animosities are
described as being very bitter, ex
tending even to society. The tenden
cy in the Panama law-making b.niy
is to squander public funds, as to .i
the grand thing.
Panama offers unusual facilities- !
water transportation. Its coast lines'
are long, and its short rivers arf
usually navigable. Good roads built
from the ports back into the interior
would open the country to wonderful
development in lumbering, cattle
grazing, mining, fruit-growing, etc.
But Panama misses the point. In
1910 the National Assembly voted to
tie up the reserve capital of t he
country in an expensive railroad
whose usfulness was doubtful. it
has wasted money in national thea
tres and national universities, which
make an imposing appearance, but
rarely ever see a performance" or
draw an exceedingly limited numb -
The Shiftless Masses.
Below these two classes of gentry.
are the great masses of the people.
They are shiftless and lazy. There
is a great deal of free land and many
of the people squat where they
please. There are two breeds of In
dians, the Cholos and the San Bias
The former have interbred with t he-
peoples who have emigrated to the.
Isthmus, but the latter. 20,000 strong.
who are in the northeastern nart of
the country, boast that they have
never been conquered, and that "no
San Bias woman has borne a half
breed and no San Bias man has fath-
there a mongrel." Except for tbi
strange tribe, as jealous of their ra-
cial integrity as the Jews, it is said
that no native of Panama is of mir
The Exploiting Foreigner.
Too lazy to make the most of th
richness of natural resource at their
doors, the Panamans have left it
to the foreigner to exploit their coun
try. on every systematically culti
vated farm, a foreicnor is th fore
The religion is Roman Catholic.
but it is said that only the women
are very religious. The men are said
to be for the most part free think ens.
The vast bulk of the congregations
are made lin nf u-nmon T)iov lnv
their seistas, or fiestas, and we had the
privilege of seeing a fiesta procession,
largely composed of gaily dressed
children, parading through the
streets of the city of Panama at night
singing anthems to the beat of a.
I liked what I saw of these simolfc
children of the far South. They have
a lone: road to tmvpi t yp-hpr
plains of civilization, but it RPems to
me there is outcome in them.
SMOKING IN CHURCH.
Strenuous Kfforts Needed to Stop U-
Mr. Spurgeon confessed to a love for
Doctor Parr, when vicar of Hatton.
smoked regularly in the vestry during
ie nymn Deiore the sermon.
It was in the KfwntntVi ontnr
however, that strenuous efforts were
needed to stoD the use of t Vi wAfl in
church. The CamhHd
for example, declared ::that no
graduate, scholler, or student nre-
sume to take tobarrn in st -vr-jT-v'c
pelhnge the Universitie."
in America the nntv-4f ioo irnt
further. The Puritans enacted that
any one smokine on tv Rahhath
'within two milen of i a mAoHrc
house shall i y twelve per.ee." Per
haps the most striking characteristics
t, saivauonists who have been
making London picturesque is that not
'.me vi. mem smokes.
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