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THE FARMER AND MECHANIC.
t 13 I r 1 i: THE NATIONAL GUARD WHAT IT MEANS AND HOW IT WAS VIEWED BY WASHINGTON, ADAMS AND JEFFER SON WHAT WOODROW WILSON THINKS OF IT ,11, V. A. K.UK, Commanding Troop A, Xorth Carolina Cavalry, National Guard.) HE WORK OF THE SOUTHERN ASSOCIATION OF COLLEGE WOMEN To Inculcate Proper Educational Ideals Point Out to nigh School Girls What They Should Take Into Con sideration in Choosing a College (Address of Miss Elizabeth Avery Coltoa, President Southern Associa- .mparatively few people seem to il'ue that the organized militia, now .lied the National Guard, is intended :,rt in connection with the regular of the country effi- .1 IP; fc-n.y in forming the first line cf de fer.se, in case of war. That it will be Tod into action along with the re gulars. That volunteers will be called f after the National . Guard has tnKf n the ield with the regular army :iru! that it will require months to i l ire the volunteers on a war footing. L'ght liorse xiarry iee saia: xaai nut ion is a murderer of its people who i-mkIs them unprepared and untrained if; meet in war men mechanized and . ijillned by training." The present strength "of the regular . i ; r; v will allow only 30,000 men for riH'lUie army u.nu uic ui &iiiiz.eu litia is relied on to furnish the ironed men to augment the regular force until volunteers can be made ready. The organized militia now numbers approximately 120.000 of i.r rs and men. That is the paper .strength. It is estimated, by compe tf -.t authorities, that only 60,000 MiiM he available and that it would if quire at least 30 days to concentrate ;'.(. regulars and 60,000 militia. .v'.tUm wars come suddenly, and in the event of trouble with a highly i: -tined military power we would be ::' mat disadvantage. The oceans, im .- a barrier, now orrer the choice ! -alf v hundred highways by which a i :t e ass power could land a luily -juipped and thoroughly trained ad v:,i"v force of 200,000 men within a w.-ek. or ten days. To oppose this it w-uld push the United States? to con- of 90,000 regulars given point within These are cold facts, which at? th tr; eturate our force militia, at any ;'' davs. M. war office of every civilized nation Mk.ws down to the minutest detail ii..!.. r 1 - Oi III n in nvanmas. uno of the greatest weaknesses of National Guard is the indifference t I. i k of interest on the part of tuihli?. In some communities this difference amounts to actual ani iity. The people do not seem to t'izt that the organized militia is ;. m .st important factor in the scheme f national defense. Absorption in business, matters of I- . ,1 ititerest, the spread of the senti ii.. -in fur universal peace and the idea th.t the I'nited States will never he roine involved in another war are 1 ir ly responsible for this lack of in tt-t. Joined to these are the lm lh.'M.' hatred of the Industrial r.s of the "World, the opposition ci the anarchists and a considerable 1' tii t.f organized labor. Untitled to Support. t: view of the fact that, under the Constitution, every in every community the militia, and as i h subject to the performance o military service it would seem that tl.- few who do perform the necessary H-rviee should receive the hearty m..iai and Dhvsical suDPort of those are not so engaged. "'.tiiM' the policy and traditions of our jovernment are unalterably op- r'V.crs of the 1. 1 1 - t'odied man i a member of 1 d to a large standing army and n-liunce in time of trouble is placed :M m the citizen soldiery, perhaps it he well to recall the views of -on.e of our deepest thinkers and trt-at.'st men. Washington's Words, ii 1793, when his administration, ii i siring to maintain neutrality be tween France and England and the allies of that period, was resisting the i'-irn-SNions of the belligerents upon ' 'ir national rights. President Wash ington made this declaration to Con gress: "There is a rank due to the ' 'iited States among nations which bp withheld, if not absolutely lost v the reputation of weakness. "If we desire to avoid insult we must be able to repeal it. "If we desire to secure peace one of the most powerful instruments of our prosperity it must be known that we are at all times ready for war." "I cannot recommend to your notice measures for the fulfilment of our (lull c-c in. V.. Vn wnrlH TiJ i t Vl ... . V n v 1 Cob Jl . Lt nviiv out again pressing upon you the ne eossity of placing ourselves in a con onion of comDlete defense and oi 'Xactintr from them the fulfilment of their duties toward us. The United states ought not to indulge a persua sion that, rontrarv to the order of human events, they will forever keep at a distance those painful appeals to arms with which the history of every "ther nation abounds." What Adams Said From President Adams' special message: "With a view and as a measure which even in time of uni versal peace ought not to be neglect- dt I recommend to your considera "on a revision of the laws for orga nizing, arming, and discipling the militia, to render that natural and safe defense cacious." From his second annual message ".' se aeanng with the relations with France): "But in demonstrat ing uy our conduct that we do not 1Cdr Wdr. m -ne necessary protection vjj. mr ngnts and honor, we should gave no room to infer that we aban uon the desire of peace." Thomas Jefferson. -cur.ir.ua in nig mm. annual mes sage advocated: "The organization of -uu,vut ame-Dodied men between th ages of 15 and 26 for offense or de fense at any time or at any place here they may be wanted." In a letter to Monroe he advocated compulsory service. "We must train and classify the whole of our male citizens," said he, "and make military instruction a part of collegiate edu cation. Wre can never be safe until this is done." From his eighth annual message: "If war be forced upon us in spite of our long and vain appeals to the justice of nations, rapid and vigor ous movement at the outset will srn far toward securing us in its course and issue, and toward throwing its burdens on those who render neces sary the resort from reason to force. Considering the conditions of the times in which we live, our attention should unremittingly be fixed on the safety of our country. For a people who are free, and who mean to re main so, a well organized and armed militia is their best security." President Wilson: "It will be right enough, right American policy, based upon our a- customed principles and practices. to provide a system by which every citizen who will volunteer for the training "may be ma3e familiar with the use of modern arms, the rudi ments of drill and maneuver, and the maintenance and sanitation of camps. We should encourage such train ing ana make it a means or discip line which our young men will learn to valua It is right that we should provide it not only, but that we should make it as attractive as pos sible, and so induce our young men to undergo it at such times as they can aemana a little rreedom and can seek the physical development they need, for mere health's sake, if for nothing more." The wise, experienced, able states men who founded and established the United States government were masters of the principles of civil lib erty and national independence. Duty of Employers. The militia needs the strongest support of the public, and especially the active support of those in whose employment are officers and men of tho militia; support of a practical kind which will make it possible for them to give the necessary time to their military training without pre judice to their business or profes sional careers. Ilave Military Obligations. Every American boy snould be im pressed with the fact that he has an obligation to the State, from the military side, quite as binding upon him as his obligations from the civil side, and that obligation is that he should do everything possible to prepare himself to render efficient service as a soioier m time or war, and the State on its side should ex tend to him every opportunity to so prepare himself. The consciousness of this obligation will make our men j more valuable as citizens, will give them a higher sense of responsibili ty toward the State, ana win make them more conservative with refer ence to war, as they will appreciate fully that if war devolves upon them it is an obligation which they must fulfill. The time has come ror us to ap preciate patriotism in the American heart. America has the best possi sible material from which to build soldiers and appreciation on the part of fellow citizens, thorough organiza tion and proper training will result in absolute security for those institu tions we so dearly love. delivered at one of meeting.) work and lion of College Women, Thursday ecening, April 22 the sessions of the annual By outlining briefly the aims of the Southern Association of College Women, I hope to suggest ways in which all intelligent women. whether members of our association or not can help us inculcate proper educational ideals; for that has been our leading aim since our organiza tion twelve years ago. Our membership is necessary limit ed to graduates of standard college tnougn we realize iuny that many women who have not been to college have acquired by inheritance, a.ssocia tion, private study, and experience an education more valuable than that which a college course alone could give. But though only college women are included among our members, in order to do our most effective work we need ail southern women to co operate with us. As there are only thirty-one col leges in the South recognized by th Association of Colleges and Secondary fccnoois oi tne boutnern states, and as only twenty of these admit women our membership is small. The six standard colleges for women- Agnes Scott, Converse, Goucher, Rand61ph Macon, Sophie Newcomb, and West hampton furnished us according to o'ur last report a total or one hundred and thirty (130) members; our nine standard state universities admitting women Alabama, Kentucky, Louisi ana. Mississippi, Wisconsin, North Carolina, Tennessee, Texas and West Virginia furnished only fcixty :-vven fiiul of our six standard uon-t tax supported co-educational institu tions on'y Trinity' and Vand n oilt have, as yet supplied us with my n embers, the others Baylor, Chat tanooga., lloie and Southern I ni versity having only recentl l-oen recognizee" by the outhern Coll -r j s scciation. Fully half of oik' i ".em bers, therefore, are gradu-uey - cf northern and western colleges; but each yea; we are evpecting larger ' d larter recruits from our So'itneoii colleges. We have twenty-three brunches distributed as follows: one, en-li, in Maryland Virginia, South CiroH.ia, Georgia and Kentucky; two m I. niisana and in Texas; three in Aia baira an! in Tennessee, and seven m North Carolina. Kadi br.-xnoh :ne-s to make a study of 'coal c.r idr.ions and to ai ' in whatever ret'Oivn-5 are most needed in its community. j or examnle. the Georgia Branch was instrumental last j'ear in securing the passage of a bill for an industrial re form school for girls: and the J' YNile tioned have been recognized vs stand ard colleges, wo try to inform pros pective college girls of the exact character and standine of all the others. We explain that normal schools and finishine: srhools have n worthy a function as that of real colleges, but that they are not col leges. If a girl wiht-s training in methods of teaching and cannot take the time for a standard coiie edu cation, she is advised tn to .i normal school. If she wishes a gen eral tinishing n.ursv.jir if he wishes to "specialize" in elocution, music or crt, she is advised to go to a tinishing school. We always recommend, how ever, those not bearing the name col lege and not conferring degrees. If a girl wishes a liberal college education she should, of course, ko to a stand ard college; but if for denominational or pecuniary reasons she is forced to choose a college not recognized as standard, she is informed as to which are the approximate colleges and which are the purely nominal col ler s in her State. She is then spare.! the humiliation of learning after shu graduates that her degree is valueless. Stung. Cincinnati Enquirer. "I would like to get a warrant for j ? i j a man wno ooxameu money unuer false pretenses, announced the angry man. "WThat is the trouble?" asked the clerk. "A fellow sold me a half interest ... a. i. . , l: n j v m a peiticoai iaaurj, irpneu me aoi- gry man. "W7ell. what is the matter with pet ticoats?" asked the clerk. There ain't no such animals," re plied the angry man. The average man's favorite occupa tion is making rules for other man to obey. Branch conducted a campaign which secured a favorable vote on a school bond issue called for by the';- City Commissioners. And all t our branches have taken a more oy less active interest in securing betttr ob:ld labor and compulsory education laws. This year we tried especially to make our influence felt by urging our res pective Senators and Representatives to vote for the Palmer-Owen child labor bill. For the sake of co-opera tion m all kinds or social service work, a number of our branches have joined the Federation of Women' j Clubs of their respective States. The main work of our association however, is carried on by means of standing committees made up largely of representatives from our various branches. The Extension, Finance and Press Committees carry on the work jruzirested by their respective names The committee on "School Patrons' has a.s its object especially the keep ing in touch with the work of other women's organizations; and during the past year-this committee has been investigating the actual illiteracy conditions of each Southern State as a first step in improving these con ditions. But the destinctive work of our association is in the hands of the Committees on Scholarships,, "College Days," and Standards of Colleges. These committees are working: (1) to interest girls in going to college; (2) to differentiate between different types of institutions calling them selves colleges; and (3) to persuade institutions not to make false claims. The association holds twenty-three scholarships at standard northern and western colleges, and each year the Scholarship Committee tries to find capable girls who need scholarship aid, and as many deserving girls need more than the amount covered by a scholarship, a loan fund committee has recently been appointed to secure money to supplement the scholar ships. The Committee on "College Days" and the Committee on Standards of Colleges co-operate in pointing out to high school girls what they should take into consideration in choosing a college. There are in the South over cne hundred and forty institutions calling themselves colleges for wo men: but as only the six already men- Our reports show, for instance, that Georgia has only one standard college for women Agnes Scott; but that nine others call themselves colleges. These reports show further that Bessie Tift, Brcnau, l.a Grange, Shorter, and Wesleyan are not rec ognized by any non-sectarian stand ardizing agency; that degrees from such institutions as Andrew. Cox. Southern Female and Young's ari purely nominal; and that a diploma from Lucy Cobb Institute, which does not pretend to be a college, is pre ferable to a degree from any of the nominal colleges. For the sake of more ready refer ence for high school girls and their parents, we are preparing tables grouping all institutions for women in each State under the following heads: 1. Standard Colleges that is. those recognized by the Association of Colleges, of the Southern Statt s. . Approximate Colleges institu tions not fully criming up to th. standard set by the Southern CoHene Association. 3. Finishing Schools institutions offering one or two years of work in advance of a high school but not giv ing any real college courses. 4. Nominal Colleges finishing schools claiming to be colleges. 5. Normal Schools institution whose main object is the training ot students in methods of teaching. If our treasury permits we will publish these lists next fall, and dis tribute them in every high school in .he South. By continuing to make public in every Southern State the actual stan dard of each educational institution. we hope to induce all conservatory "colleges" to drop the title college: some of our other nominal colleges to become junior colleges by substi tuting standard freshmen and sopho omre work for their present junior and senior superficial courses; others to become good preparatory schools, and only a very few to attempt to be come standard colleges. For one standard college for women is all that any Southern State should at present attempt to support. But denominationalism complicates scientific RiaiXSgement at this point. We are trying, however, to persuade the different church boards of edu-1 cation to limit their colleges in a Ptat to at least one for men and women, either separate or combined and to one or two junior colleges. And we are also endeavoring to create such a public sentiment as will lead State Legislatures to pass laws refusing to grant college charters to corporations that cannot guarantee resources amounting to at least 5 3UU,uuu; ior no institution with less than that should attempt to do college work. Our various bulletins issued dur ing the past five years have already, to a certain extent, counteracted the deceptive advertisements of a number of nominal colleges. And our sta tistical tables showing the approxi mate value of recent degrees of Sou thern colleges are being used at all leading northern and western col leges and universities in rating stu dents from Southern colleges. But we realize that our influence on nomi nal colleges, on denominational boards of education, and on State Legisla tures will be very slow unless we are able to gain the sympathy and co operation of all intelligent Southern people. Therefore, we beg all who love honesty and right ideals to help us m our euons io inauce vaoi .-southern educational institution to limit its announcements to its capacity whether that be that of a preparatory school, a finishing school, a two-year colleee. or a real college. Then then only, shall we have high tional standards in th South. ana educa- it' 1 u 5 I J" i;: ... f' ' a 1 8 n i i r 4 ' if 3 Japan's government forests last year yielded $5,360,000 in revenues, and consumed 12,327,000 in expenses.