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. I . ' : , ! i 1 i " , ? '. it " ft M ' i'1.! i . . . .. 1 - 1 1 1 16 THE FARMER AND MECHANIC. - ..hnnis Tli nvpraed BETTER RURAL SCHOOLS AND ; n S'if sS CHURCHES THE SOUTH'S NEED aSfS . : . " of the rural South are still taught in Conditions Cry Aloud for Speedy Improvement-Problem ""ClZ If nvpl Prn- dfcid teachers, the majority of First Ot All iCOnoniic iuucaccu "6"W4M' whom shift every yearonly a very small minority teaching in tne same duction a Necessity. J. Y. ( n address delivered by Dr .Tovner. president of the Southern Conference for Education and Indus try, at a session of the conference in Chattanooga, Tuesday. April 27.) This Southern Conference for Kdu cation and Industry is the union of the two organizations that have been at work longest, and perhaps most suc cessfully, for the advancement of ed ucation and industry of the South. The ultimate aims and objects of the separate organizations were so simi lar and so many of the members and active workers of one were members and active workers of the other that it was deemed wise in the interest of economy of time, effort and money, and for increase of influence and power to merge the two. The principal purpose of this con fronpp is to brine together repre sentative groups of active leaders of workers, and thinkers, educational. agricultural, industrial and religious from the several Southern States ahpro ihp conditions are very simi lar, for a diagnosis of existing con ditions, a discussion of their causes and remedies, and the formulation and inauguration of plans and pro grams of co-operative work for their improvement. The organization itself, therefore, furnishes an excellent example of my subject, which is "Cooperation" co operation for the improvement of rural civilization in the South. South Rural Section. The South is a rural section of large area and sparse population. It con tains about 29 1.2 per cent of the land area of the United States, and only about 32 per cent of the popu lation. Its average population per square mile is 33 1-2. Only about one third of its land is under cultivation. About eight-tenths of the population of the Southern group of States is rural. The problem of the South, therefore, is distinctly a rural prob lem. These conditions are naturally conducive to individualism, isolation, ignorance, provincialism, and restrict ed vision, and are in themselves seri ous obstacles to the co-operation nec essary for community building for meeting the demands of modern civ ilization. They make cooperation, however, all the more imperative be cause in cooperation is to be found the only hope for widely separated in dividuals to protect themselves against ruinous competition along all lines "with combination, which simply means cooperation, in all the centers of population. Majority Will Rule. The eight-tenths of the population of the Southern group of States, not the two-tenths, will ultimately deter mine the civilization and the destiny of the whole. The task and the op portunity of this Conference is to bring our Southern people to the realization of existing rural condi tions, to arouse them to a sense of their duty and obligation, and to or ganize them under wise leadership for co-operative and effective action in various groups according to de finite plans for the accomplishment of the common purpose of improving these conditions. There is a mysterious unity and in terdependence in all the uplifting forces of life and civilization. The Creator seems to have interlinked his forces in a sort of divine unity and correlation. Who can separate the physical, the intellectual, the spiritual in man? Who can explain how they act and react upon each other? Who does not know that one cannot say to the other, "I have no need of thee" that each contributes to the well-be ing of the other and to the well-bing erage per capita weaun or uounuj dwellers in the Southern States is $333.42, against an average of $994.00 for the countrv at large, and an av erage as high as $1386 in some of the rural middle Western States. Thirty-six per cent of white farmers of the South, and in large areas, 50 per cent of them, are tenants. In places the percentage is even larger than 50. About 50 per cent of these tenants move every year. In the en tire South more than one-third of all farmers move every year. In most of the rural communities, therefore, there is a very large shifting, shiftless, landless population. Only one that owns it, lives on it, and cultivates it, ever loves and improves the soil and gets most out of it. The shifting, shiftless, landless man, caught in the ceaseless drudgery for scant subsist, ence sinks into a hopeles state of dull indifference, and ofttimes despair, from which it is almost impossible to arouse him. He feels but a pass ing interest in anything, and takes an abiding interest in nothing. In community building he is at best but a negative influence and is cften a positive disintegrating and destruc tive influence. Only resident owners of the soil can be interested and en listed in constructive and expensive undertakings for the permanent im provement of conditions of every sort in the rural communities. In many parts of the rural South tenancy and absentee landlordism are increasing. Between 1890 and 1910, the percentage of people living in the country was decreased from 83 to 73; the percentage of people living in towns and cities was increased from 17 to 27. In the South, therefore, urban population is increasing far more rapidly than rural population. Educational, Social and Religious Conditions. With this low productive power, with this low per capita wealth, with this meager net annual profit, pro viding but a meager individual and community surplus from which to draw for improving conditions: with this large percentage of tenants and absentee landlordism, and the conse quent shifting, shiftless, landless, ir responsible and unresponsive popula tion, it would be strange if the educa tional, social, and religious conditions of the rural South were not far from satisfactory. Churches, schools, and other means of improving these conditions must be provided and maintained out of the community surplus, and are dependent for their success, permanency, and growth in each community upon the stability, interest, thrift and cooperation of the population of the community. Recent rural surveys in a number of counties in several States of the rural South reveals these facts. Ninety-eight per cent of the country churches have services only once a month. The country church has largely lost its old-time leadership; many of these churches, perhaps most of them, are either stationary, dying or dead. Many of the country preachers have moved to town and serve country churches once a month. Those residing in the country usualy serve three or four churches. Sala ries are too meager to command the strongest men or to warrant them in devoting their whole time to their work, but little pastoral work is done for the country church except to of ficiate at burials arid mariages. In mary places denominational zeal is multiplying weak churches and weak ening strong ones. In many comu ties hardly able to support one strong cnurcn and of four and that NlLCAlI ': HELD AT NORFOLK Li bs pnmmnnitv loner enough to do any con tinuous constructive progressive work for school or community or to find out the conditions and needs of these; that these country children attend eviroi irree-nlarlv for less than half of each year; a large majority them completing only three or grades of scholastic work. Needs of All the People. Any civilization is decadent destined to ultimate dissolution does not provide adequate means for ministering proportionately to the hu man needs of all the people, econom ic, intellectual. social, spiritual, springing out of the triune nature of man body, mind, and soul. inese conditions in the rural South cry aloud for speedy improvement to real friend of the South and of our common coun try that is not blinded by provincial and sectional vanity can doubt, nor can he in the light of history doubt, that this improvement must be an or. ganized growth from organic forces cooperating: from within States and counties and commuities. As friends and lovers of our community, our State, our section and our common country it behooves us to face these conditions candidly and take counsel and action together for improvin them. What then are some of the agencies and forces that may be commanded and organized for their improvement, and what are some of the most effective means and plans for their organization and direction? In his "Evolution of the Country Community," Warren Wilson has well said: This problem is first of all an economic one, involving the making of a sufficient profit out of soil and plant and animal the three great sources of wealth for every rural com munity, and for the world, and the saving of a sufficient surplus each year to provide the means to meet the demands and to maintain the agencies of a higher civilization. The farmer lives closest to these greatest sources of wealth, but as a rule, get less profit from them than almost any other class. Better living in the country involves better farming and better business -these involve in creased agricultural production and diversification through scientific ag riculture, better agricultural distri bution through scientific marketing, better agricultural financing through rural credit associations, and coop erativ banking. All of these in turn involve demonstration, instruction co operation. All agencies for demon stration and instruction like demon stration farms, demonstration agens. farmers institutes etc., marketing and manufacturing associations, like co operative creameries, should be fos tered and encouraged. Back of this whole question, however, of better farming and better marketing, better agricultural, financing and increased industrial prosperity in the countrv. lies the question of intelligence, with out wnicn, leadership, organization, cooperation ana emciency are impos sioie. Agricultural and industrial prosperity alone, will not hold people in the country, nor bring people to the country. It often sends people iroin me country to seek and find elsewhere, the desirable things in civ ilization mat individual wealth alone cannot supply and can not' command in the country. Perhaps more good and prosperous people leave thp country on account of lack of schools and churches and social advantages i"u otner causes. These cul tural agencies and Institutions, there r j. r i , , oecreiary -uameis Witt Parade and Drill of 1 5,000 Enlisted Men SPEAKS TO 10,000 M RA!M Declares Navy of To Stronger Than It Eve He Said It Had Made Progress in Past Tw r V i ore 0 Year TL - r .. r r n Mil k i W I LIUI VI VI I UJrJ Officer and Men ? i or in th in 1' a n (By the Associate! Pre Norfolk, Va., May 1. xuVi,l . f. fleers, enlisted men and society wm. en elbowed with each other t...j;.v at ixj mot navai carnival ever giv. n tnis section. It was held on grounds of the naval training s and twenty-five thousand passed through the gates. Secretary of the Navy .J.?e;, Daniels witnessed a dress i unidv ;ir. i drill by 1,500 enlisted men thi- atu ,. noon, and later stood lan'he;ui.-,i the rain and addressed ten thmir.i people. He declared the navv v. -. v M stronger than it ever was. n it had made more nrocress ti,. two years than ever before. H. sai , the last Congress had done nur' f..- the navy than any other Con?re. b:i J done. lie praised the ortieer men for making the carnival ,t cess. The feature of the lav a sham battle between l.r.oo sjiii..r Over 50,000 rounds of small umiium;. tion and 250 rounds of three-im-h an . munition was used. The forces wwre divided Into tw. armies," "the offensives' and th uciciioncs . luriner, comma na ed by Chief Quartermaster Niw r, were declared the victors, after tln v charged the "defensives", command, ed by Chief Quartermaster W U. Eailey, writh bayonets and oapt ii 1 the position held by the latter. Th Red Cross corps after the battle, av a realistic demonstration of how dea l and dying soldiers are cared for on the battle field. Scores of booths presided over 1 naval officers, society women and en listed men were erected all oved th grounds at which were dispensed re ¬ freshments and souvenirs. The !:-. ceeds will go to the Naval Relief As sociation, which provides for widow and orphans of the enlisted mn of the navy. KAUF AFFAIR. ST 1 1 1. Opinion It He Will Bo Returned to Brooklyn. New York, Apr. 30. "Denny Kauff the star outfielder of the Biooklyn Federal League club, who caused furore in baseball circles yesterday by jumping to the New York Xatioi - als, may not appear again in a N-w York uniform. The consensus oi op inion today seemed to be that in :d probability Kauff would be return ft to the Brooklyn Federals, probaMy tomorrow. At a meeting of all the eastern . ': presidents of the National league iat- today the Kauff affair was discus.--t and President Tener held that n:.e pastor, there are several thft whole. fin runs a o-rVMcm line' insfpnrl mf itnifinnc ,,!4- i"an.c d, wviuuun m tne thread through all His universe, this fluences. The countrv church "x? signer needs of 9fl rf V r TnliAnnl enmmiooinn'q in 1 rore, must be supplied in the country was valid which says a player ju uvf.ii j.or economic proSDentv anA trr. ins the reserve cannnt anDlv for r spiritualizing that prosperity so as to statement until three years after country I offense. mysterious law of unity and interde pendence, enforcing its eternal lesson of cooperation. In civilization, who can separate the economic, the educational, the social the spiritual? Who can fail to see uuunirv cnurcn. 1 1 p. i 1 , ... v. the country school, is too often a lTT'TJlJ101 unify ing and satisfying power. Schools and Churches Lead The most important agencies, there- civilization are htt SUES FOR 13,000. fore, for better rural mere laboratory for novices or an asylum for the decrepit and the inef. ficient. - ' The following facts revealing edu cational conditions were comniled their interdependence, that they act from a recent unpublished survey of rural schools and better rural rhurnh . A I . i ... . i . I i . . I a . " une cunnov say to me otner, "i nave tomac ana the Mississippi Rivers, a rural scnool with house enough no need of thee"; that the highest, made by the rural supervisors of these land enough, teachers enoueh -Jtyfn onfnet oil-tact nlirnUntiA i - I O 3 , . - i I A 1 U U6"l CI111- " ? ' i viYiuiouuii io w uc U.L- i oiai.es uuuer me general airection or uicu cuuugu, money enough furnish lamtu unu K.t?pi, oniy iiirougn tne co ur. a. j. 5ouriand, then executive ing cultural and vocational training ODCratlOll Of Jill fnr thA ennA rf rVi I c?onff- n V. 0..4.1 njnAjn I fr-n rrim w , . - - . - ewv vs. --v., . uvvnwwj ui ouuiuci xi tuuuiiiuu i vuujiu j uuja ctnu ETiriS n t and in r t Iia trnrf rvf r nrVinln Anln Tv i! i j,lV.rt -rrr.1 -e:. at L , " -. owv. i"v tt uuic, yjaij i jjo,la emu now executive secretary ur i"- win iic mem ior more nr.r.TVio,o. thrnntrh tVio nrnnnwsnnQt, i I v,.- on j. - - I "uie complete, wwaaio ucvciuy uua Kuiucieut'ft o.t jjer cent oi me mule yi umtiuit;, more cnmfnrta Vvi ment Of each in reenter, it fr nf tVifa cnVnnlhmioao 5 v.. .n vl. I mnro offlpion n,- , ""'iui UlUie, universal law of unitv and ititAH. 7f 8 ncr ot v.. .r. h, thai will fTQiT v, v uuntry, pendence. H: r-i. Of UnitV and interde- I 70. R npr ont in tho o-rain holf h avA I thflt Will tVain how -i - - - - ...v ... -v, j txiciKe tne mn?t what are some of the existinsr rnn I mmi cohni iimio ic R7R &7 3 ahnnt thpm nnH Y 4111 inat 1S slapped the teacher ji I . l w v w. m. utjvu AkJ vtvvv v w V MX&VA. i, J If II I I n Q y nfll i I - aitions economic ednratinnnl . - - "J XT V WAAW W.V Mr X. . W A. WV,W.SA. I VU11U Lilt III c ' me 11CCU 1.VJ1 the improvement of rural civilization in the South and of cooperation to that end? Economic Conditions. The average annual income of the farming population of the Southern States after deducting the cost of fer tilizers and labor, is $489.95; deduct ing from this other farm and house hold expenses there is left a very meager net profit. Only about one- Negro Awarded $50 l)ama' Ashcville. .(Special to The News and Obserw Asheville, April 30. Suing .! Michael, colored, principal of th Street school, for damages in th of $5,000. Flora Nichols. c formerly employed as a teacher at t; school yesterdav was awarded dan ages in the sum of $50. The ca.-e T-'" a sequel to that recently tried i:i t: police court when Michaels vuh a raigned on a charge of assault in- teacher who was employed by Ik'u was in evidence that they had a ! pute which ended when the ut: . ; it If. ing their first term at their schools; 18.2 their second term, 6.5 per cent their third term and only 7.9 per cent had taught three or more terms at the same place. 71.5 per cent of the teachers are women, ranging from 48.9 per cent to 80.4 per cent, about 25 .per cent of them are under twenty. The average age approximates Vf-ars. 75 Per Cent rf ho todfV.ora I li f P tr tVi-v had no other training than that riven coming a .AI?,e..co?linunity. be jj v.' svuuvu. 1 yer i ucunmenL! O . A. ;irX."?.cus 01 country people 2 T "come a social, intellectual upuftinVorc; Tn a,?Wn? country school with a strong VU Principal to irive rnntin, . . . Aircrafts Over Suffolk. resident and i.crrn - 92 the wnrlr v, ' : . "'""mion to "I Hf ;' nooi and to give his leader in all fmth of the Southern farmers can be I cent of the scholastic population were school that shall YS eet down as profit makers. The av-I enrolled and 47.7 per cent in daily at- ership in th ,!Sin ,011 4 11Ee; a country lU.1 1 wz rt W M A. ershio in T.r A""ie lor 41 - wumiy communitv and London, May 1. The Kx li i Telegraph Company says a Ot: taube aeroplane visited Suffolk e .vi late yesterday but dropped no 1" Two British airmen are said to gone Up in pursuit of the hostile craft. by cultivating a spirit of sympathy a'itVi ;-. r i, .!,.. ,. it rind i v V A L 11 1. ,111. Ill IllVlilV 111 1L. " love of it, keep more leaders in community.