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THE FARMER AND MECHANIC.
1- FARM NEWS bOMK SAY IT PAYS TO "nOf. OH- CORX. TIIK COW. MUST 11AVK V ATI III. tiii: "Ui'-sT' breed or poultry (By F. O. WELLCOME.) Which is the best breed of fowls?" Is one of the popular and continually reiterated queries. If we look to ex perienced poultry keepers for our en ivpr we often find them so prejudiced against breeds that thtey do not han dle and so biased in favor of those they prefer that their evidence only makes our confusion more com plete. If we examine the matter in the light of pure logic we find that most popular breeds and varieties of chick ens are so universally bred by all types of poultry keepsr . that ever were one sort better than another it would require a wiser expert than the world has yet produced to point it out and prove his case. I saw the other day this statement: Leghorns are universally admitted t, be better layers than any other breed." Even if that statement be true it proves nothing as to the rela tive laying abilities of Leghorns and other breeds. Sometimes Leghorns do not lay well. "When that is the ease tne reason ior tneir rauure is liktly to be the same as those that i ause specimens of other breeds to lay poorly ana mere are many reasons for poor laying that have nothing at all to do with the breed as such. I have no prejudice against any breed, but during the past ten years 1 have examined a great many reports of egg production, in private letters and in our poultry periodicals, and I have yet to find any evidence that any onr breed or variety, as individuals ..r as docks, surpass another in in-ltr-rmt egg-producing capacity. The largest authentic individual e---record that I know of 318 eggs brown eggs, are are usually very They are quiet canot fly over a large in size and persistent sitters, and slow-motioned. low ience ana are in a eu 1 ss than one year was made by r.i-ahma. The next largest 310 's in one year by a Plymouth neaviiy feathered, including lees and feet. This last feature is objection able on heavy soil that becomes mud dy in wet weather Aside from that, that are less affected bv changes than are the more thinlv feathered, larger combed breeds. n m - - j-nese neavy creeds easily become too tat to lay well, if carelessly fed, but care in feeding, forced exercise in lit ter and skillful breeding will produce individuals and stocks that will lay as many egrjrs Der hen in a a winter or a year as will any other breeds When marketed for meat each bird brings an appreciable return In the American class we find the Plymouth Rocks, several varieties; HNnnn4n 1 Jil CI! 1 - . a,iiuom-n, ocvcicii varieties, cmiikic and Rose Comb Rhode Island Reds; American Dominique; Javas, and sev erai nuie Known Dreects tnat l am unable td describe. The breeds in this class are inter mediate between the Mediterraneans and the Asiatics. They are know as the "general purpose' breeds. As breeds they are hardy, good foragers, bear confinement well, are the right size, when well grown, to just suit the average meat-market demand They have clean legs and produce eggs tnat vary in color rrom very light tinted to dark brown and in size from medium to large. While they are known as sitting breeds, many individual hens, especially in .fiymoutn hocks, are practicaiy non- sitters, lhey are as proline as any breed or as poor layers as any, ac cording to the particular stocK or strain in hand and the care and skill applied to them. I have not mentioned the English Orpingtons. There are several varie ties, i nave no doubt tnat thev are re- lj g& a s V SB i f p A Paying Flock of Chickens on a Western Farm. Tock. The largest flock records that I have seen reported by apparently dependable people were made by Asiatic and American breeds as well as Mediterraneans. If we divide chickens into three great classes Mediterraneans, Asia tics and Americans and then exam ine the difference in those classes we will much simplify the matter. Hav ing selected the class that seems best suited to our temperament, circum stances, location and market, the choice of the breed and variety is mainly a matter of whim and fancy. In the Mediterranean class we have several varieties of Leghorne, black and white Minarcas, black Spanish several varieties of Hamburgs, sever al varieties of Polish, blue Andalus ia ns. The Leghorns are hardy, small, ex ceedingly nervous and active but tamable; forage widely when at lib erty, high flyers when confined to amall yards or parks. They are non Bitters and not so likely to become overfat on full and careless feeding in confinment as are the larger and less active breeds. When marketed their small size limits the returns. The Monorcas are considerably larger than Leghorns and lay a very large white egg. They are not so nervous and "flighty" and are good market fowls whenever their white skin and dark legs are not objection able. They are non-sitters. The Black Spanish, once deserved ly popular, no longer possess any par ticular desirable qualities, as a rule. The Hamburgs are non-sitters, lay a white egg. are small and not con sidered to be sufficiently hardy for general ntilitv nurooses. They and the Polish (a crested head) are fan clers' rather than farmers breeds. The Blue Andalusians are non-sit ters, lay a large white egg, are larger than Lesrhorns and smaller than the Minorcas and have slate-colored legs. Tn the Asiatic class we have the Light and Dark Brahmas; several colors of Cochins; Black and White Langshans. These breeds lay large an excellent oreea out wnerein tney excell or even differ from our leading American breeds in any practical par ticulars I db not known; except that their white skin is more favored in the English markets than the yellow skin that our discriminating market prefers. Space limits smopell the brevity or their descriptions and the ommission of several breeds that have not yet impressed many practical utility poul try keepers by their merits. In these times when hired heln is often not to be had and corn must stand in the field. the can brinsr his hnes to hi aiH in tru-. u K V t 4 I I Ik ing care of it. Many farmer yearly practice hog ging off the corn and some of them Say it UaS. An O Vi i r. rimer- InmaH 1-1 spring pigs and older hogs into a 10-acre corn field in September. The spring pigs averaged S' i.onmk nnd the older hosrs irf. nnnrc nA ' - " - tuutiu, atiu iiir total weiuht of all -ic i co-i The corn would vield a hom fin bushels an acre, and "in it there were a KOOd mailV mimnlrinc TU fc..,- had access also to a 5-aere clover eTd m . irorn wnicn the seed had been moved. Water was hauled to them and innv had the shade of the w.iorU nr In twenty-eight days the hoirs liai gained 6,522 pounds. At this nmp head, averaging 245 pounds, were sola at $5.15 ner hunrirpr. -r-no t- mainder were not sold, but the far mer Was Offered S5 ier hnr.drP.l fir them. Counting the entire train of 6.522 pounds at $5 would make $32 6.10. or $32.61 per acre for the field. This paid 52 cents a bushel for the corn which, on the market, was worth 40 cents. The whole herd made an average daily gain of 1.91 wounds ner head. A man in southern Kansas, who makes a practice of "hogging down'" corn, uses a portable fence and fences off 5 to 10 acres at a time.Ntaking in more as needed. He turns thp hoys in the corn in August. On 12 acres of corn one year he fattened 50 head of hogs, the corn being estimated at aoout 600 bushels. Of the bunch, 42 head were sold, aver aging 240 pounds, netting $600. Allowing 100 pounds gain for each hog on the corn thus fed, the corn brought 41 1-2 cents a bushel, with out the expense of gathering. A farmer in Neoraska ha been "hogging down" corn for a numncr of years. About 500 head of hogs are turned off his farm every year. By gathering atd feeding corn, be. sides that which was gathered by the hogs, it was found that a bushel of corn "hoggea down" will make as much pork as tne same quantity husk ed and fed, wnile the expense of har vesting is sved. An Iowa farmer says that in his I first year's experience he snapped 20 acres of corn beside the field "hogged down." The next spring both fields were sown to small grain under the same conditions and writh the same preparation. On the land where corn was "hogged down" the wheat made 5 and the oats 7 bushels more to the acre than did the other. The differ ence is just as noticeable in a suc ceeding corn crop. The husks, cobs, stalks and leaves all remain on the land, and these, with the manure from the hogs, enrich the soil and in crease its humus content. The health of the hog is an impoor tant consideration. Hogs that have plenty of range and exercise are not nearly so susceptible to disease as those confined in a small pen. A hog that goes out after his feed wrill be ! well grown and thrifty, accustomed to exposure, and not liable to be injured by a sudden change of -weather. It is difficult, however, to put a good finish on hogs while running in a large field or pasture. If they are allowed to run until three weeks or a month before sending to market, and are then shut up and given all the corn thejk want, with plenty of pure water, they will make very rapid gains. This man allows his pigs to run in the corn as soon as it is cultivated the last time, but does not let the older hogs into the field until the corn is in good condition to feed in the fall. He says he has also had good results from letting cattle into the. corn first and following these witn hogs. It is foolish to opct cows to Riv milk in quantity ub ss they have an abundance of p i re drinklnc water. Milk is largely compost-il of w.tter and we may as well try making bricks without straw as to suppS thi in scant quantity You want a drink you want It. Does not the do animal h.ive the same crav If placed where she can set it times she will drir.k more and do better than when it in only acceM ble at stated intervals, perhaps so far apart that there is a tendency to drink too much. when mestiv ing ? at all Kxhibic Your Poultry. If you have sorr.e bird that you think will line the winners vou are in i your fl'Hk . well with at the poultry show when the Luainess for selling for sevting, do not hesitate t exhibit them, but it will be wise to have some eipcri poultry man jude them first. He may save you some dis appointment and then he may find birds which are more likely to be prize winners than thos ymj h.wu vourself, ielecied. Watering House lMant. I am often asked if warm or cold water should be used. I would let cold water wtand In the room until It Is about the temperature of th air about tbo plants. On no Account would 1 Us warm water. It 1 too stimulating. In other woil. it ex cites the plants to which you apply it to an unnatural degree and the re sult It R ruphl development which i nver health v. M. F. Dark ilarns a Menace. WMI lighted hore or dairy fctall are even more imperative during th wilder months than in the summer, since th? absence of light lower thrt temperature. Then, leading the ani mals forth into the glare of day after their long confinement in the gloomy stalls is liable to bring on defective eyesight while the poriy lighted stalls alo contribute to the advance ment of almost every known ailment of live stock. Give The Fowl Oyster Shells. Home say suitable for will not do fact nearly that oyster shell is only egg-shell material and for grit. As a matter of all kinds of poultry will eat oyster shell at all fteasons of the year. (Irowing chick. irosling. and ducklings have no use for egg shell material, consequently their lik ing for it argues that they need it to grind their food. Care of The Meadow. Where the gophers have worked up the meadow sod, take a common gar den rake, smooth down the dirt mounds, sprinkle seeds over them, brush lightly again with the rake and you will not only avoid running your sickles through the dirt and dulling them, but a good set of grass will spring up and cover the ground. If a considerable area is worked up. hitch to the harrow and level down the gopher mounds, seed them and harrow again after seeding. The mule is easily broken, as all farmers who have handled them will testify, but it is a good thing to aet them used to being handled before they get too old; then they are ready for the regular work when you need them. If the most extensive use is to L made of corn silage in fattening cat tle it is desirable to feed some hlh protein concentrate in the ration- KTLLING THE TOBACCO HORN- WORM. In using poisoned bait it is neces sary to nrst keep tne held as clean as possible of weeds, two of three weeks preceding transplanting in or der to reduce the food supply of the worms ana render tnem Hungry, a. couple of days previous to transplant ing, spray a small patch of clover with Paris green at the rate of one ounce to six gallons of water. Cut the clover up into small bits and scatter in small handfuls about the field, preferably on a ciouay aay ana in xne evening when the cut worms are out for food and the clover will not dry out too rapidly. If these poisoned baits are not more than six to eight feet apart the hungry worms will have no trouble in finding them. In place of the pois oned clover bait, a poisoned bran mash bait may be used. This is made by mixing one pound of dry Paris green, with forty pounds of bran. To this is added sweetened water, or a cheap syruD. stirring it thoroughly to get it all moist. This is scattered about the field in the same way as the clover bait and has the advantage in that it ap pears to attract the worm more than the clover bait. Poultry should be ex cluded from the treated area for some time, at least until the rain has wash ed the poison away. . To be perfect in form, quality and size fruit trees need an open soil sur face, at least every other season. mm i - t. t H ti - I i ' t . ' i- i I . t .1 " i t , - Many of Tliis Bunch of "Mortgage Lifters" Weigh 375 Pound- Whole corn is the best ration for sitting hens. Give them all they will eat of it once a day. Don't feed the sitters with the rest of the flock. They should have some grass, also clean, fresh water to drink, some grit and charcoal. Large hens axe best for hatching eggs. The United States of America is by far the greatest steel producing coun try on earth. Germany comes next, with Great Britain third. The figures for 1910 (the latest at hand for the moment) show this country to be equal in steel products to both Ger many and the I'nited Kingdom. r i