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THE FARMER AND MECHANIC.
HOW ARGENTINA 15 GOVERNED A Talk With the President of the Republic and His Relations to Us (Copy right, 1915, The link House Versus the White House A Ixok at Congress and Its Palace or Gold A Building Scan dal Which Involved Millions Ar gentine Craft and Grafters Queer Ijaws as to Wills Churches Li hraries and Schools Queer Fea tures of a Great Argentine News pajK'r It Has Doctors and Law yers and Teachers All Free to the Public. by Frank G. Car penter). Buenos Aires. I have just returned from an inter view with the president of the Ar gentine Republic. My audience was arranged through our embassy, and his excellency received me in the great government palace, facing the water front at the lower end of the Plaza de Mayo. This palace Covers more than two acres. It is four hun dred feet long and two hundred and fifty feet wide, being one of the larg est buildings on the South American continent. It is made of brick cov ered with stucco, and its old rose color reminds one of the great Winter Pal ace at St. Petersburg, on the banks of the Neva. On account of the color it is known as the Pink House, and in this respect is in striking contrast to our White House, on the banks of the Potomac. The Pink House is several times the size of the White House. It has three stories and its surroundings, including the many of ficials in livery, are grander than those about President Wilson. I en tered it from the Plaza de Mayo, be ing led through the building by Capt. Lynch, the military attache of the president. We first . passed through the wide vestibule, ascended marble stairs to the second story, and there met Senor Atilio Basilari, the introducer of foreigners. After chat ting with him a while I was taken into the audience room and presented to the president. culti- divided and a time of intensive vation would come. Said he: "The county could easily support ten times its present population, and it would then have only 100,000,000. It would then have only about as many as your country has now." The president of Argentina is Dr. Victorino de la Plaza. He is, I judge, about fifty years of age. He has had a long public career, having been secre tary of foreign affairs and held other high offices. He was elected vice president of the republic in 1910, at the time that Dr. Koque Saenz Pena was tlected president, and upon the death of the latter last fall he be came by law the chief executive of the nation. The presidents here are elected for six years, and there are no second terms. The doctor's term will expire in 1916. President Victorino de la Plaza rose as I entered the room and offered his hand. He is so short, fleshy man with a round, rosy, full face and bright eyes that look out through narrow slits. The cartoonists have caricatured him in the Dress as a Chinese, and in some respects his fea tures are almost Celestial. He is a man of education and culture. He has a bright mind and his opinions are positive. He spoke freely, but rather diplomatically, about the relations of the United States and the Argentine, raying that he was glad our rela tions were growing closer and closer, and that he wanted to see the trade between the two countries increased to its utmost extent. Said he: "I am glad that you people are taking our meat and corn, and that, as time goes on, we will have a more varied exchange of commodities. As it is now, you are furnishing the most of our agricultural machinery, and we are increasing our purchases of goods of every description. Trade must be reciprocal in order to increase in vol ume, and the present situation is such that we are growing more and more dependent upon each other. This is especially so with Argentina, whose banking and trade are so much de pendent upon foreign conditions. I am glad to see Americans banks be ing founded in this country, and I should like to see better iteamship connections between us and the United States." His excellency spoke of the Pana ma canal, saying that although it might benefit the western part of Argentina, its chief value would be to the west coast of this continent. He referred to the San. Francisco expo sition, saying that the exhibit sent from here is as good as the country can furnish, but that it seemed to him like carrying coals to Newcastle to take the products of the Argentine to the United States of the two coun tries are both agricultural and pas toral and their interests are very much the same. I asked as to the Argentino of the future, speaking of the immigration from Europe and the possibility that the country might be Italianized thereby. Mr. Victorino la Plaza re plied: "The Argentino of the future will be much the same as the Argentino of today. No matter what the nat ionality of the immigrant we. find that wc soon assimilate him and he be comes an Argentino and a patriot. We are making Argcntinos of our im migrants, just as in the past you have made good Americans of the mixed elements you have brought in from the various countries of Europe. We have the same advantage that you have had, in that we can put the im migrants out on the farms and in that each man can have his own land and own home and grow up with the country. This makes him a better citizen than if he were herded with others of his. own kind in such con gested districts as the cities and mines, as is now the case with much of your immigration. We have so much land that I believe we can as similate our immigrants for a long time to come." Argentine Republic is held In our summer, which is the winter on this side of the equator. It lasts from May 1 to September 30, and the sit tings for the house take place Mon days, Wednesdays and Fridays, and on the other days of the week Tor the senate. The Congress is formed in much the same way as ours. There are two bodies, the senate and house of representatives. The senate has thirty members, two from the capital, and two from each province elected by a special body of electors, who meet at the capital, and by the legis latures in the provinces. The house of representatives consists of 120 deputies, elected by the people. By the constitution there must be one deputy for every 03,000 inhabitants. The deputies are elected for four years, but one-half must go out every two years. A deputy must be twenty five years of age before he can run, and have been for four years a citizen. The senators must be thirty years of age before they are eligible, and must have been citizens for six years. They are elected for terms of nine years in stead of six years, as with us. Both senators and deputies receive salaries of $7,500 a year. The president gets an annual salary of about $42,000 of by a few wealth- families, trie aris our money, andie has, in addition, about $13,000 for -his official expen ses. The vice-president has a salary of about $16,000, with $10,500 for official expenses, and each of the eight cabinet officers gets about $16, 000 per annum. There are property qualifications for all congressmen, and a senator must have an income of at least $800 a year. All money appropriations must originate in the house of dep uties, and only the deputies have a voice in fixing taxation. cumuli, toons journals that compare those of the United also great dailies. grams from all and which todav news quite as fuflv New York. This and La. Nacion. an 1 which parts ,,f hav as the is so of v Both r Mtrn uunsiuru reguiarlv forty-five vears. nmi high rank for their indent "l" cisms and their excellent i ' ' Buenos Aires has two F: 7r One is the Standard, f.'a, i " by the Mulhalls. the well k-' "n tisticians, and the other 'Vjr nos Aires Herald, now n t ' Mr. Reginald Lloyd. lU th -prising, the Herald b-ip- "7 noted for its agricultural V. raising news. v - r it li lt. Leavyjg the Pink House I took a taxicab and, for about 35 cents of our money, rode through the wide Aven ida de Mayo, the Pennsylvania ave nue of Buenos Aires, to the new cap itol, where Congress meets. This building is still in course of construc tion, but it is already one of the most imposing structures of the world. It stands in front of a magnificent plaza, which was carved out of the business part of the city. To make it four sol id blocks of buildings were torn down and the ground was built up and cov ered with grass, trees and shrubs. Fine statues were erected, fountains were instituted and other decorations made at a cost of $5,000,000. In or der to have the park ready for the centennial display of 1910 the work was all done in ninety days. I asked his excellency alout the feeling in the Argentine as to Uncle Sam, and whether there existed any Jealousy in regard to the United States. The president replied: "If there is jealousy I am i ot aware of it. The relations between the two countries are of the friend liest possible nature. Argentina has enormous resources, and it . grow ing so fast that it has not tirtie to be jealous of any one. It is well satisfied with its place in the sun, and "also with what the good Lord has givftU it in the way of resources." Upon this I asked as to Argen tine's future. His excellency replied that his country was just beginning to grow, and that it would continue to grow in population and wealth for generations to come. He said that the nation would eventually be one of small farmers, instead of large ones, and that the great estancias would be The capitol faces this plaza. It re minds one a little of our capitol at Washington. It is a marble building of four stories, from whose center rises a great dome which weighs 30r 0C0 tons. The dome rests upon pil lars of white granite and its wTeight is such that in order to strengthen it, it was necessary to construct an in verted dome beneath it. The build ing is of Graeco-Roman styles. Its center has the form of a semi-circle and there is a wing at each end and a projecting pavilion at each corner. The buildings contain the national halls of the house and senate, the secretary's offices, the committee rooms and a library. All of its furn ishings are magnificent, and it is like the state house of Pennsylvania and the capitol at Albany in the extrava gance of its expenditure. Indeed, there has been so much scandal con nected with it that it has been nick named the palace of gold. The original estimates for it were 6,000,000 pesos, but it has already cost over thirty millions. Something like $14,000,000 Was spent for ce ment alone, and two millions, so the people say, was paid out for work that was never done. Another two millions was squandered on bronze capitals, three millions on marble statues, and seven millions more in mistakes on the dressing and stucco of the fronts. Over and above this fabulous sums were spent for decora tion and furniture, and no one knows where much of the money went. Just at this time, when we are looking in to the pork barrels of our Congress at home, the people here are begin ning to question the pork barrel ends of this capitol building, and, in the hard times created by the war, to wonder whether some of it may not be recovered. Committees have been appointed to get to the bottom of the "unuing scanaal ana to expose graft and ihe grafters. In addition to the national govern ment the republic has state govern ments and tate legislatures such as we have. Each of the fourteen prov inces elects its own governor, par liament and judges, and each has its own constitution. . Each has its own courts and its own laws for legal pro ceedings, but it can only make such laws as do not affect the national laws. On paper, the rights of the people are about the same as those of Tli'.- United States, and the country is quite as free and democratic as ours. in reality, however, it is like every Latin American republic, an oligarchy. The government is run tocratic Argentinos dominating the whole. The great leaders have their official henchmen, and I am told there is a vast deal of graft. Argen tina is much as the. United States was in the days of Boss Tvved. I do not mean to say that there is no pa triotism or honesty. Many of the better class Argentinos love their country, and are doing all they can to fight down the official corruption and to put their nation in the front rank among trie republics. In many ways this republic is bet ter off than ours. As far as individ ual rights are concerned, there is lib erty and equality, and before the law the foreigner has the same rights as a citizen. There are no titles of no bility. Property is inviolable, and the state sees that the father provides for his children. In our country a man can make a will giving his possessions to whomsoever or whatsoever he pleases and cut off his daughter or son with a nickel. In Argentina the laws provide that a father must leave his children four-fifths of his for tune, and a husband, if he has no children, has to leave half of his property to his wife. An unmarried son is comnelled to len.vA Vo narontc of his property, and only persons without parents or can make wills disnosincr of their possessions as they see fit. During my stay here I v, through some of the nev;, ,7, That of La Prensa is fum., L the world. It stands on til de Mayo not far from Fii n and in the very heart ,,f tu' building is of white stone high, and a golden br-.n?." Fame rises eighteen feet al.. of its tower. The intf ri- r newspaper officer is palatial or its rooms would nut be o in tne nome or a monarch festival hall, four halls for pu erings, and quarters for the ment of distinguished visitor nos Aires, consisting .f iuoiu,. uiinns room and srn k billiard rooms, with dressing r tached. The paper maintain puDiic library, and it has department, where doctor ciaiists treat without char-.-will come. There is also a i partment, where any o'-.e wh may have the advice of a r. lawryer as to his business or rignts, and a chemical labor voted to experimental, and industrial uses. The its own observatory and iss:-.. s wTeather reports. it has a s h., iuuit, vviifits iric uesi vocal strumental instructors train charge those who show stun ent. a a n and r. ) d ari' ry !-;:rd l'ret-n.i ai; 1 1 'i . f ! Pronsa is r ;a. It t i-'ij.. :i of it ;..? :f is a ( i i t. 11 I have said that tlu the leading papers of Ardent i without doubt one of the izr'. of the world, and is at the h class in all South America. It 1 X A - lation omen runs to -uu.uu't day, and it is now usim,' alo five tons of white paper every tv four hours. Its machinery is r:n electricity, and it has its oun .-!. . plant, although the presses may al coupled with the electric plant . -f city. I have been interested in the tisements of this paper, an-1 charges, which varv according character and purse of the man ad vertising. For instance, an employ er advertising for a servant pays 3) cents a line, while the servant adver tising for a situation is charged 10 cents a line. A doctor who v;e?,M patients must pay $2 a lin whi'.- a poor girl out of a job gets ihf am for 10 cents. The Journal is 1,1! f small advertisements. Each na r. i it contains about 60.000 of that ture; and every day it has ti' tn teen pages of official, profess; auction ads and other ar. Mo ments. The paper altogether about 300 employes. Its u h-crr "tolls are close to a thousand l"i); day, and its fees to com-sp'-r:-run high into the thousands of d a year. FRANK G. CARPHNT1 Lasix two-thirds unmarried descendants BELIEVES TYPHLN 1 I A !K CAN BE EXTEP.MIN Ti:D Religion is free in Argentina. Al most all of the people are Catholics and the stafre gives some support to the Catholic church, but all other creeds are tolerated, and any one may worship any god in any way he pleases. Primary education is free and com pulsory for all children of from six to fourteen years of acre. The eovprn- ment has a national council of educa tion; and at present about two-thirds of the children of school age are in at tendance. The republic has in the cSi3,orhood of 23'000 teachers and 800,000 pupils in the primary schools, it tias a thousand teachers in the sec ondary schools, and there are thirty ..M,tlvliai -une;esi wun about 9,000 stu dents There are sixty-seven normal schools and thirty-four schools for special instruction. There are national universities at Cordoba, Buenos Aires ?lata" and tne university at wnrf T8 0116 f MeSt in the neW Itwas funded in 1613, ante nd fv,?rVardy enty-three years Marv t fi.rst charter of Willm and Mary by eighty years. There are also schools and colleges for women, d a iiumuer or the women. the The congressional session of the teachers are nrSi Snce m Arsentina is of a high oraer. There are big libraries at BUe- ?S re-f' and among them the Na tional Library, which has 200,000 vol- cnThe country altogether has fv? newspapers. of which more tnan 700 are in the Spanish language, lnere are sixteen newspapers pub lished in Italian, ten in English, seven in German and others in Scandinavian, French and Russian. Buenos Aires has a live, up-to-date Gen. Goi'gas Says It Remain- On Know Amount of Antitoxin to Adminirtcr. (Washington Starj Prediction that typhus a a n to armies will disappear j'ist ; phoid fever has done w;i.s mad. Surgeon General Gorgas of th- 1 States Army, who has !; : the post of commander-in-ehi.-t sanitary forces in fVrbia. un,'.' Tinekpfpllpr Foundation. Ho remained only to .show by art .. ,t perience the right amount i toxne to administer. Gen. ( statement was made to th- ' agricultural relief commit:'--America. v The campaign against typ.! Serbia, Gen. Gorgas declare... 1 cost only a few hundred thousne lars or it might run into inilhe:. pending on the progress mao-. of the most necessary moves. i ed out, was the return of th- now held in congested district: their farms, for little progre be made where the people ' died together infested with With the people distributed rarger area, ne said, u"' r. came one of extermination "f ' min which carries the fever ami only habitat practically is th ' body. I to LADOES $1009 Reward . . i . toe ni - U,ia c Monthly Comnoaad. Saf ccsifulErflO-l-Safetyrei of the Terflontrwt, most cbiUnaWbr.cnr.a in iwcc to five umyn wiwom interference with work. Orders nll $2.00. Testimonial mnd Booklet FBtK. 3 ML N.A. WOTMISSTW IEBE6T Cfl- . 5" " "'