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THE FARMER AND MECHANIC.
FORTvIAL DECLARATION WAS
YESTERDAY PRESENTED TO
AUSTRIAN FOREIGN MINISTER
m If Y C - l AA A V A ft 4 4 A M 4 li a 1.. t
clble OUtDreaK OI war uciwcccu aumim uju nary me relief ?c r..?j
here that the campaign will be conducted by the German c-IV.i
Austria Failed to Concede to Italy
Her Demands For Territory Prin
cipally In Province of Istria
FRONTIER FIGHTING BEGUN
German and Austrian Governments Have Pre
vented 30,000 Italians From Leaving The
Two Countries, It Is Reported, and Indigna
tion Prevails in Italy; Reported That Popu
lation of Trent, an Austrian Stronghold, Has
Been Reduced To One-Fifth By Italians;
'A i j til i'l Oi a JT j rT" annulled and heneeiortn wixr
Ambassadors oi Hostile btates Returning io cct. her treaty of.amance w;
... tria-Hungary, which was viol
iNative Lands; uermany Kesents Attitude
and Has Withdrawn Ambassador at Rome.
(By the Associated Press.)
Rome, May 23. Via Paris. Italy is at war with Austria-Hungary.
With the issuance of the general moblization order, the Italian
government issued a proclamation declaring war on Austria, which
officially will begin tomorrow.
Prior to this, and after a lengthy consultation the Ministers of
War and Mnrinp nrnrlaimpH nil th nmvnnc UrAarntr passports will be 'placed this very day
. t .... j'v"" iiumns- VM1 at the disposal of the Imperial and
Royal Ambassador at Rome and he
will be obliged to his excellency if he
will kindly have his passports handed
Staff, which will, it is said, plan a strong flensive movenien .
Italy in the hope ot creating me nanan nnes ana loran- rt,
into Italian territory thereby arousing -alarm and strenVrc- -feeling
favorable to peace.
Should such an attempt fail through the resistance of tj,t ;
army, tne Ausinans ana jciniana wuuw men iiir m res, t
tensive measures against a certain invasion. The Austrian ct.
are particularlv strong and have beeen constructed everwv , ' '
iilong the Dalmatian coast which already is protected K iitl
lloating mines and guarded by a dozen submarines, earn in- (K
efficers and saHors.
The Austrian fleet is centered at Pola, with only a Uu i
boats and destroyers at Cattaro and Spalato. Other Air
ships are in the Dalmatian Archipelago on the northeast cv
Adriatic sea. Naval men here do not consider it likelv th.:
trian fleet will leave Pola unless forced by an Italian attack.
Text of Declaration. "
Amsterdam, May 2 3. Via London,
May 24. A dispatch from Vienna
says the Italian Ambassador to Aus
tria, the Duke of Avarna, this after
noon presented to Baron Von Rurian,
the Austro-Hungarian Foreign Minis
ter, the following declaration of war:
"Vienna, May 2, 1915.
"Conformably with the orders of
His Majesty, the King his august sov
ereign, the undersigned Ambassador
of Italy has the honor to deliver to
his Excellency, the Foreign Minister
of Austria-Hungary, the following
"Declaration has been made, as
from the fourth of this month, to the
Imperial and Royal Government of
the grave motives for winch Italy, con
fident in her good right, proclaimed
annulled and henceforth without ct-
the Imperial and Royal government
and resumed her liberty of action in
"The government of the King firmly
resolved to provide by all means at
its disposal for safeguarding Italian
rights, and interests, cr.nnot fail in
its duty to take against every existing
and future menace measures which
events imnose upon it for the fulfill
ment of national aspirations.
"His Majesty, the King, declares
that he considers himself from tomor
row in a state of war with Austria-Hungary.
"The undersigned has the honor to
make kn.wn at the same time to his
excellency the foreign minister that
tain absolute nentralin
Italian Catholics fre- t.
war, according t th-ir
without engaging the i st.,.j v
the Holy See.
"It is said the Ppt- ,
formally against the e.,i ,
Austrian ambassador am: t,
ministers accredited to it,
declaring it is contra t. i i,,
Annual Merchant Marine An,.
, Paris, May 23.- Max , .
from Rome says that the .!..,.! ,
cial today published the f,.i;. "
"In consideration of ih t.;, ,
the warring powers in n,, ,
i conflict exercise the riyni , ' ,
and retain in their port-
vessels belonging to the enn,
are in said uorts at ihe ....
hostilities, articles 211 ai,i
merchant marine code hi (,.,
nulled in the eventu::hi .
participation in the w;r.'"'
' I t
G ERMA X Y M A R I 1 n i
and the islands and coast towns of the Adriatic in a state of war which
was equivalent to establishment of martial law, the step usually pre
ceding the formal declaration.
Although drastic action has been looked for momentarily, Italians
of all classes have been electrified by the swiftly moving events.
Early this morning great crowds gathered around the Quirnial to
await the ministers, who called on the King for the purpose of dis
cussing the question and signing the decree.
When-Premier Salandra and Signor Sonnino, the Foreign Min
ister left the palace the people cheered them enthusiastically. General
Zuppeli, Minister of War, and Vice Admiral Viale, Minister of Marine,
remained with the King for a considerable time after the others left
and later they had a conference with Lieut.-General Cadorna, chief
of staff and Vice Admiral Phaon Di Revel, chief of the naval staff.
Strong Forces Along Austro-Italian Front.
Declaration Presented at Vienna.
London, May 24. The Italian am
bassador at Vienna on Sunday after
noon presented a formal declaration
of war to Baron Von Rajecz, the Aus
tro-Hungarian I4 oreign Minister. This
announcement is made in a Vienna
dispatch to Reuter's Telegram Cpm
pany sent by way of Amsterdam.
War Correspondents Not Allowed.
Claims Italy Made Tnext iitk t.
Against Dual Monan l.j
London, May 24. A I;;Im
dispatch received by I : u .-
gram Company, by wax f
dam and dated Max 2 3. s;.-
"The Italian governmei.i
caused to be declared t),!.
ambassador to the A ust ro-1 : ,
government, the Duke . f A.
Italy considers herself in ;.
war with Austria-Hunt:: r
"The Italian goxermmi.i I
excusable attack aijaiiw i
monarchy, has also broki.
right or without her pr....t.;
liance with German v.
"The loyal relationship
formably with the treatx
Austria-Hungary and th
Lmpire, and still more hrH
by the comradeship of am.-,
mained unimoaireci by th
of the third ally and h r
the enemies' camp. The nem.
bassador therefore r:
structions to leave Un; ;
with, the Austro-II unari;. u
. 1 1
Turin, Italy, via Paris, May 2 3
Commander in Chief Cadorna, Pre
mier Salandra, and Foreign Minister
Sonnino have agreed, says the Stam
When the first blow will be Struck cannot hp fWtnlrl but offpr Pa- war correspondents shall no
v-vV VV t. A . W A f nil mt4 n. i fc. 4- W Ti 1.'
tnonv mnnt,f roM: 4U v.:U u i u.c fcil"w.w.il" l" ualla ay and
.j.cujr niviuito ui K'M'lUluu" ti"J, vviiicu iiiii uccil greatly tnat tne Italian press bureau shall
renemenea, ana tne naVV are readV. hxceedin? v strong inrrp arp operate in tne same manner as do
tu: i a'..-- 7 J :& . : . . those 3
iii puuiuii an rtnjnj; me usiro-iiHiian ironxier, on tne Austrian side
of which feverish preparations have been going on for the last few
'days to make the fortifications as strong as possible and to clear the
way for effective artillery action.
I he German Ambassador Prince
QUIKT AT WASH I M. ttV
in France and Great Britain.
30,000 Italians Held.
Kome, via Paris, May 2 3. The re
port reaching Rome that the German
and Austrian governments have nrp.
veniea du.uuu Italians
t i- i i .1 i . i veiiieu .iu.uuu iTnii?n fm-m ioor;.
v h p nu' ann titp AiiQTrian .. . ' r : '
XV -v t t t I A j v . i tin tries rias
Amoassador baron Von Macchio, are still in Rome, so far as is known, created a profound impression. The
Jhev have waited to the last nmment in th hnnp that ;nm wav K!iornale 'Italia declines
rv.:,rf, k. tr,A i.u l A. .-i, , V e report, not only because this
iiii&ui iuuiiu iu jnevem ii ciHbii at arnib. I ney will oe given saie would be opposed to the right of na-
conduct when they do leave and so far as German and Austrian resi- tio,ns' but ?? h?Jeson that Ital" not
Hdfifc in to w o -o nmn, 1 U J , i ii "HWe OI AUS-
v.wbo iii iittijf an, tuutciutu, cvcij ciiuii iia uccii indue iu sec mem trians and German from Italian
sareiy out ot tne country.
but protected these nationals.
On ihr rtbpr banrl mrcf okrmln.r rrrc l,ova" Kfl, a . . r rom ine Austrian side of the f ron-
' jw mv. juiiuj nivji linn """j, it'ui u iia l L'ctu i ttcivcu 1 tier
trom Italian border towns that Italian residents in the Austrian terri
tory are experiencing difficulty in returning to Italy, and in many
cases have been placed under arrest.
According to the Giornale D'ltalia, the problem confronting the
diplomats accredited to the Vatican has been
news reaches Udine that the Ttni.
ian residents are actually being hunted
anu tnat. tne rate oi cut) who left
Triest hoping to reach Italv is un
known, and that the greatest anxietv
lui lueir isaiety is ien.
At Rovigno, in Istria, 62 Italian citi-
aciib iidvc ueeii ttrrtfSLeu. 1 npep in.
Austrian and German diplomats ignoring the situation in Italv will clude the mayor, and the secretary of
depart, as if they were merely taking their summer vacations before relidTn
the regular time. It had been urged by some that the Italian govern- naxe been taken into custody by the
mfnf m nvp rrvAtiro lb- UVi -rmrti a iun j i i , noliee. and at Cormons. on tbo f t-
vmw i,ui.ikk.tiv.ait mi itL'tti iu me ui L'iuirid.iic renrpspnT-i , . , .
-f.vc onrl bv niborc 4bo .... iA S 'm "l tier- 1'000 Itaha"S' for. the 08t par
Population Reduced One-fiftR
The popular of the town of Trent
one oi Austria s strongly fortified
towns, has been reduced rmfifK
During the last two days the fuHT. i net
tants have been terrified bv tv,; "JtZ"1 vommerce i
with bt' ae cuttingr orr of commerce u
itives and by others that the Vatican resist anv effort to forrp th cm I women and children, have he
to withdraw. But these extreme measures failed, and thus the law ffntfaS? and Prevented trom leaving
From Germany come reports that considprabl pntimpnt U fpH
in official quarters there against what is alleged to be the obstinancy
ui me Austrian diplomacy responsible for the failure of the negotia
tions with Italy initiated, bv Prince Von Buelow. the Herman Ambas-
jador. The suggestion had even been made that Austria shmild be
left alone to fight Italy, but pledees taken bv the German General
Staff and by the German Emperor personally with Emperor Francis SrtSJ StuSUttiv!rV Tct&U
jupn, icbuiicu in mc inumpn or tnose advocating Austro-German rcmainaer p the residents of
solidarity even in a new war aca nst Italv. ?nI::l ; nou$ to be m read-
AbTi Qnn Ann ntnn, " a ...... 1 fcV ve l??W.tly.
imvttiidiu inu nuniirians aireauy nave ucch ui-
ctmiaicu aanisi nary, usiria ensuring mem commissariat scivicc.
Thought Germany Will Plan Offensive.
Although Field Marshal Von Conrad Von Hoetzendorf, Chief of
Stan of the Austrian army, had prepared for many years for a pos
plosion of mines, with which the mffi.
- r , , ie aesxroyiner
,:; TCr everything with-
Italian and Australian 1 :i -
Not Been Notified :it I. at
Washington, I). C, M i : .
.a late hour toniuht ?h n.. . !
Austrian embassies hfr- -
State Department. wei win - . -cial
notification of Italv s :!.
of war on Austria Imt -ff, '
the preparation of a iit-iii i i h; i
lamation to be issued by 1 r. - t
Wilson probablv tonicrri'W v! 1 -
bassador Thomas Nelson !';.: x v' J
the American girnmn:i f !'-
The United Stales t ' . ,,. . i
accordance with request '
nearly a month ago. will tat-
custody of Italian dipioii.atM ai -sular
interests in Austria ;.t
trian interests in Italy aif..i - ' r
the care of orisoners ai i if "
conduct of consuls and o- : '
officers and the prote tior, t - 1
Jt is taken for granted in ) '
quarters here that as a result '
declaration of war agan.st ' '
Germany and Turkey, a u
of that country will announce ; -of
war with Italy. Swityei ;;,).. i " '
look after German interests ir. i. ?
while the United State is ei' ?
to take charge of Italian inter i
Berlin and Constantinople.
One subject on which jnfoi r m (
is awaited is the attitude of Jt;i '
ward the naval operations of f" . al
lies, whether Italy will puhscni
the order In council, makinc in. i
ble all commercial intercourse m M
Germany and Austria through '
Mediterranean and whether the san.o
rigid rules as to contraband will
enforced by the Jtalian fleet!? a,- 1
the Austrian fleet.
euct Prepares Docnment.
froni Rom S1 wwiv.
many and AuBtria through the
terraneaii. Jt is thought in
quarters feere, soon will be fieri' "
felt by tne? central powers. Tt
trance of JVouma&ia, shutting cf:
wheat pply fJOm goutheasterr. 1
ropeanwoufd be jiother JmpoJt.
factor. 3here Jon? has been a
aerstandinflr between itiv and u
manla-5cording to offficial inf'i
tion erc, to enter the war -proiixnAtely
)xe same time. Wl,e;t.. i
Buigaxis flniious to repajn tenit. ij
r fig V
4Contioued on Page Eleven)
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