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THE FARMER AND MECHANIC.
' ' ' ' ' I - I -- II ! II. NIL 11 (IS (ISO IRON jrazil's Mighty Ore Deposits to Be veloped by American Capital De- c I. an Englishman, found it ratine in a bed of rust. "'ii years later a tew V ... uioKn iij. ,y aid and lire and somf of tl to other museums. Th.- now pieves were of 1 HSt !' U "! fi t S e ver taken i- near the River fUc-m. In 1S0 a p!on of 00 ru rat was discovered n t tha rr . ..;: on- of th : :m u . t . . . I with far from m;n-r tr It v. nudied-Million Dollar Syndicate. here the Ore Beds Arc Equal to K. Superior A Talk With Dr. ille Derby, the Famous Gcolo- vt Passed Upon by the Ivxperts Our Steel Trust and the Krupps. anioiuis in itrazii now Mined. mo Uich Finds Wees of Pro ms Stones Carbons and Topazes. pyrignt, iy rranK u. car- penter) RIO DI: JANEIRO. A i American syndicate with a cap- (.!' about one hundred million dol- s has been formed to. develop the ;n deposits of the central part of jius Geraes." 1 take this statement from a late hlication authorized by the Brazil- a government. it relates to some or ,t greatest iron beds yet developed IrL.A Geraes is a great State a shon stance back from the Atlantic ocean. i I is separated from the Atlantic by le narrow States of Kspirato Santo lid i:io de Janeiro. The country is lis Ji. and it has many kinds of min Vsil-i, including diamonds. It has .Treat beds of iron. In the central nd southern parts of the State there re said to be more than two billion ons of ore in sight, and one block of rn inai contains twenty minion ions;. Til1 latted is 50 per cent pure. The llins ores have been analyzed by ex perts from the United States Steel Company and from the Krupps, and ih-y are known to be very valuable. l'ar fifty-two out-crops have been t iivt-yed by the mining engineers of Jth Brazilian government, and their ' imate is that they contain no less t!i; ii twelve billion tons of high-grade ere. Minas Geraes has one small iron vi irks that is now smelting six tons of jaetal a day at a profit of $8 per ton. FxperimenLs are being made to reduce th iron by electricity, and the govern Hi a m US Oil m ill Uin.'h "'"u.1 aner i;r. iei:y came to thai he coj-.eluded t,, -t tio- p-t iwio a;- Janeiro. A oeen Imi t in ti.r. pec-iui truck was mud1 to work m the rails, it tooK I2t days t., - meteorite to th.' railroad, and it ua linally brought hcif. t.. in.. ..- i. . in i5s. rhe meteorite wa overa wild country and range oi mountains wiiii H u. 1 Am lei nign. t : it- ; railroad l;.id ' nu'un.whilf ai: a a si'is:' St !..-. if;- t ll!' d d : Thf IV" iron used by the world. Th5 f.r.t ;L known to the iron and st-el com panies of other countries, and a syn dicate Was recntlv fnrmorl ot Englishmen and Americans to buv certain parts of the iron beds and develop them. This syndicate had a bona fide capital of 25.000,000 pounds aternng, or $ lZo.UOO.OOO. and I have no doubt but that when matters be come quiet once more its operations will be continued. At oresent th sit uation is such that no great undertak ing can be entered into, and there have been troubles in connection with the concessions here in Brazil that will have to be settl-ed before the syn dicate will proceed with its work I uouot not tnat the ore beds will eventually be developed and that they will result in a great industry." "WTiere is this fteld of iri, Dr Derby?" I asked. It is scattered over considerable territory," was the reply. "It lies in annas ueraes. Mhe eastern end of it is about 270 miles from tire seacoast. and it is so situated that the way to the ocean is almost all down grade Some of the beds farther back in the country will have to be hauled to the top of the ridge and then go on down to tne sea. aon oy slaves, and any slave that "Can you give me some ideo of the found a gem of eighteen carats got extent ot the deposits?" his freedom. Up to 1850 more than a "I can only say that they are enor- quarter of a million carats of dia- mous. I reeentJ.w-Uisimated them at monds were taken out of two rivers A . 1 1 ' 1 - I . . i nfli;i . . . 1 ' ivvu mousunu million ions, nil in tnis vllI" nuui mo river uiviih;- more tw. a i . ; i 1 ,",mii r :-.v.-. :o-y , J..'! ! p , J -n::h Afr.M. u. -d..r. tl.!-'0--f,...; th. n Lor. i.-n a; are ..: i r --.ij.i i h ) . rn r than A : : diarnopj, A ti.v W M - hi 1 . f 't ; - .T , ; .- i . f two and on.--h.ih .a rat I asked Dr. Iirrby whether dn niond pipes, such as exist in South vfri.v would ever be found in l'.ray.il h would not prophesy. There is uo doubt, however, that diamonds ; still being found in this countrv, and no ones knows whether diamond pipes may not yet be discovered. Un til the opening up of the mines of South Africa most din found in the gravel of streams. This was the case with the diamonds of Brazil. They were known to exist al most 200 years ago and wore used as counters by the gold miners be fore their value was known. As far back as 17.,2 no less than 30,000 men were searching for diamonds in the state of Minas, and during the follow ing half century Brazil exported pre cious stones to the value of $1S,00' 000. During the eighteenth centurv the stones were sold In parcels by con tract under governrnene regulations, and the average price was onlv nbnm $3 per carats Much of tho work was donp t i m at S Th.- ' ". I 1 1 I o o!l. ft v luaMiw,,- iouau m i;oo.. .in i lw1 hh;, .wutrt across a o: cs of t u. -.o x ... ; .,.. " 1 ' n .li.il Kill .J ar.4is wre Uiscnrtid about the ":sii er.nvr5 jw.-'.v. a!o-I ar mad'- un almost r-- tifeO of iJra.lH.:!; .-hiv. ij, 1 t"6 di;in;ond cki;n;.s m alo'.e. scattered o,r in area of aboit loO.inoi ari-s. Tlir produced on.- mil!;,,!) .l-'.'ar ' w.irtii of diamond that year. Altot.-! h.-r i i said that up to i.yo.-. Hra.i! hal ex ported a to:al of -oiio-ih:ru: like fu-n l.ms- r diamond-, in carbons and oih tliere Were 1 iainanti!i.t addition t tier priou- Moncs There is a great deal of money in th carlor.s of l: rax.il. Curhons are in pur. diamonds of a black or brown color. They are very hard and are ued t.. make boring machines ami for polish ing hard substances. They are found in all sizes from some as big as a grain of sand to others that weiph hundreds of carats. We buy thousand of dollars' worth of these carbons every year. On was found some Un aeo that weighed :'.() oo carats. It wa sold in llahia and sent out to Uprope where it brought $.", Oao; another, weighing 97o carats, was stml to Paris, where it sold for 10e.vM.rn fran.-s. I included only the high-grade ore that could be used for the manufac ture of steel. That ore is equal to the best of our Lake Superior regions and of a higher grade than a great part of it. Some of the geologists of the United States, including professors of the University of Wisconsin at Madi son, have stated that my estimate was a conservative one. Wisconsin pro than a million carats had Icen taken up to that date. Until 1S71 Brazil held the first place in the world in the production of diamonds. The first diamonds were discovered m trie state ot Minas Geraes. in a country which is about n00 miles; north of Rio de Janeiro. So manv Were found tlmt the eonntrv- n-o V.t t i . i - I 1 t, nas i uaige oi ui eiectric luriidce. fcssors you know, have had much to coming known as Diamantina and i :u uuro i-reto wnicn nas Deen re- do with investigating the Lake Su- is still identifie feniiy erected at a cost or vzo.ooo. Tin great trouble is the lack of good perior fields." c al for smelting, and it is a ques- tinr whether any such can be found lv. 1'tazil. "Can you tell me something about the owners of the fields?" "Some of them are American capi- identified with the diamond in dustry. Some of the fields are situated l A i'ii line "P . i --i t Va it i.i. . . . . , , , . . . 1 . -ivv iium iiir nracuaai unu one can go to within several days' mule ride of them by railway. The country- has an elevation of from 3.a00 to r.- 700 feet above the sea. Much of the 1 - - . .... -m iron ore is ronu in every uraznian iuis ae..i " 'diamond countrv is made un of ra- :ate. One of the fields in Minas, nere to examine me teinioiy a iter fl tVl. - n . I n-t r r,fr.tAmvnf r. c f hn it n.n f r.Y til A I ' ....j ' " " " sort of blue clay deposit in beds a few- feet in thickness. The diamond pipes ot Africa consist of blue clay There are also diamond fields in central Bahia and many are found iti the streams. Some of the gravels are hich i more than fifty miles long, is my statement as to the -extent of the crossed by the Central railroad, and ore and its value, it was upon trie the Leopoldino railroad passes by aavice oi tne experts mai wiey uougm other great beds. In the State of large tracts of ore-bearing property Carana there is a irreat denosit of ore irom in3 original owners, xuese men which is only three miles from a sea- mciuae sucn wen kiiowmi persons us, . , t I tn-mcka I I1 1 1 1 o t I Atnor-a r nprp nrp port, anu ore in ia.rge quanuues 18 " tT in swamDV districts, buried from 20 to known to exist in Sao Paulo and Santa yermaii a m t '-ltli'irina I wno nave Dougnt tracts ot ore iaiius The iron ores of Brazil are of two Some of the syndicate are men in distinct types. The magnetite ores are terested in shipping. The proposi- fnnnd In HAver.il Strifes. Thev are of lion is to a iarge extern, a. tiititio uii, .v,nii imnnmnrA nnmirrin? onlv n tor tne ore win De carnea aowii to " ' a J l a. J V.I,- 4. 1 nUA. tne sea. auu siuyycu to viic amcucio ui the United States and Europe 30 feet under water and mud, and some He in streams on the bedrock below the gravel. There are also dia mond fields in iMatto Grosso, that vast province of central Brazil, but so far none has been found there which weighs more than five carats. Some Couldit not be smelted in Brazil?" of the mining of Matto Grosso is done I asked I uicujuig, uuu iiul very tuccesMuiiy. "So far we have not discovered coal reuges are aiso employed in Annas ueittrs. scattered deposits. Tho hematite ores arc found chiefly in Minas Geraes. They occupy the south-central part of the State and the principal beds are ti'ithin o -lf nrv inrt m i 1 f i lnnr anil Mxty miles wide. It is in this region fit for smelting f m such quantities as that tho electric furnace is operating ! ,nS!3e J?' PV and It 13 hero that the enormous beds i-D Wrlitoli T ViVtt rafarroH trt ft frt fflllTlli. I xauw JUU.l. oiutmna "J riuLii a Alt . J I Oil l 1 n 4V.on 1 1 UO not tlUlltN- Ulill iccioiwic !, more tlfan 4 000 feet thick Tlfipi much coal as smelting alto- Axes the prices. There no one can ' more man I.UUU ieet vniCK. auo I , . ,, l mine for diamonds without thn rnn- ore seems to bo a true sedimentary I wjr formation laid down at the same time a the inclosing rocks, and tho rocks 1 wre these iron beds of Minas During my stay in Ilio 1 have visited many of the jewelry stores. They hav magnificent diamonds, but I am told the prices are about the same as those of other cities. Senor Brill of the Avenila Central sells rough diamonds up to one-fourth of a carat from to $12 each, ami from one-fourth carat to one carat in size from $1" to Bough diamonds, which weiIi from one to two carats, bring and upward. Above two carats there are no fixed rates. Cut stones are fat mof" expensive than the stones in the rough. Among the other stones sold which are especially beautiful are tournma lines, aqua marines and topa.es. one of the most beautiful topazes ever dis- covereu came iron; lirazil. It va.s originally given tiy the Bmperor 1 on Pedro to I 'ope Pius IX, who gave it to the King of Naples. Upon this was engraved a figure of Christ, so deli cately that it took twelve years t make it. The price asked for the stone was $200,000. In the National Mu seum here there is a topaz which weighs four and one-half pounds, and Dr. Co.ta Senna, director of the School of Mines at Ouro Preto. has a bluish white stone that weighs forty-eight grammes. A ruby-red topaz of twenty four carats sold in the nineteenth cen tury for $25. A white one in the Portuguese crown jewel weighs (.r 1,600 carats. FRANK G . UARPENTHB. Mining for diamonds in South Africa is done on a grand scale. The fields are owned by the diamond syndicate and the whole is in the hands of a great trust which hires the labor and mine for diamonds without the con sent of the trust and the government, and he cannot even buy or sell dia monds without government permis sion. In Brazil any one can get a license to mine diamonds, and the dia mond fields are full of prospectors and ore have the same dip. Some of loeraes recently discovered?" the ore layers form the tops or hill or i "No. They have been known rpr ridges and there are great cliffs of ore hundreds of years. The colonial rec to be seen along the hillsides. ords show that an exploiting party aml srnall errouns of men who have started out from the town of Sao 1 -foined together to search for the Dre- Iliirlnf mv etnv hnrfl T have had a Paulo in 1590 and discovered iron ore rimis stonps. The. work Is donp much chit with rr Orvillf T. "Derbv. who is in the mountains which are about six- 1ik( nio0xr washing in the United at the head of the geological survey of ty miles to the southward. -About one gtates an(j all the tools necessary can iirazil. and who has heen tor many nunarea years ii:i tiio buu "- be carried on a mule. Mucn or trie years tho chief geologist of the coun- Ouro Preto, where the electric itir- work is done in the streams, the min- trv Tv Tm.Uv ia a ATrkftn AmnrAn. I nace IS now. were oucnuu. uu emu rc rthHno- fi own from hoatc t fi K- i n rr w Knpn In hn TTnt1 Ktaiea and I iron fields Were made known to the I .i h thpm ranvas hn?? hpld nnpn hv reelvH hlc A1ioattnn fit rrmll TTni-1 World. A large part Of the gold in I. n rina Flanh miner fills hi?; hacr versity. It was away back in 1870. that district is iouna in toimmiuu With the gravel and then rises to the forty-Ave ycars'ago, that he first came wun tne iron aiuwuga bcat, where he empties it. After suf- 1 ... . . . m : I Wunlrail vacnt Wnt hv npfnrP iWe have 1 e s t. -1 l l l m're Wltn One OI n3 proiessora m wuit- I uuuuiu y , r . , , uueni aiiiuum. ui erav iia.a ucun si- iiection with the Morgan exploration any records of the iron s being turned CUred it is carried to the shore and . expedition, sent out from the United into use. Along aDout tne uepnmn the diamonds sorted out. Where the . ' A. A. n Ia nf I y4 1 m tT TITO 13 I . . . States to do geological work in Brazil, or tne last cemury sum J men have enough capital they some- proaucing its own nun, ouu.c ." times dam the streams and turn tne using me orumiir uiatnoiunu c o Water so that the dry oed can oe and at tnat time a uttie auditing piam. i00iced over was established wnicn turned out iron Th miners work only in the dry at a rate or aoout a nunarea pouuua season They go over the gravel again ner dav. Later still the whole or the i o era In V.von t H e cand Is sifted find r. . ' , . j.ii.j :v. i; - - mining district was aotteu wim uu sorted and at the close women go furnaces and about the time of our tnroUgn the refuse and pick out the civil war. 1864. as many as one nun- r),nDQ t.iinf ha.Vft hepn missed. w i l. j iii. v a a . - - t - dred and twenty were still in opera- If there are pieces of conglomerate tion. I they are broken un and explosives are He returned to complete his college course, after which he became pro ftMsor of geology at Cornell. He had served but a short while when the Emperor of Brazil engaged him to come to Ilio and take charge of the mineralogy department of the Na tional Museum. He held this office for some years and then left to make & geological survey of the State of Sa.o Paulo. Since then he has done other geological work all over Brazil, having been continually employed in that pursuit up to the present. Dr. Derby for a long time has been at the head of the national geological sur vey of this country and he still holds that position. ' ne of my first questions to Dr. Derby was as to the future of Brazil. He replied that he was not a prophet nor the son of a prophet, and went on to speak of the mineral resources of tr.; country, saying: 'One of the irreat assets of Brazil its iron. The country has enormous quantities of this metal and it will eventually supply a large part of tho OS LONG AUTO.MOltlU: TRIP. J used to get out the boulders blocking T4 -no. oiiin nr.vhv -who hroue-ht the stream. The diamonds are orten XL 1 i-fi w ' .--., ' ' - - o l , . IIai'i and Family Have Covered 15.000 Miles. Memphis Commercial-A ppeal. J. A. Harps, a wealthy manufac turer of Greenfield. Ohio accompanied by his family, arrived in Memphis in a big touring car and registered at Hotel Gayoso. Mr. Harps is finishing a transcontinental trip in his auto. The party consists of Mrs. Harp?, Ua Ted R. and Alexander Harps, hi three sons, and Charles Morley, me- chanican. "Rob" Scott, of San An tonio, Texas, Is also with Mr. Harps' party, having Joined them In Texas. Mr. Scott is touring the country on a motorcycle. He is the son of a wealthy ranch owner in Texas and is taking this method of seeing the country. Mr. Harps left home July 10. Since then he has traversed Indiana. Illi nois, Iowa, Nebraska, Wyoming. Colo rado, Utah, Nevada, California, Ari zona, New Mexico Texas Arkansas a part of Mississippi and incidentally dipped down into old Mexico. He will take his family to see the great Tri-State Fair and probably re sume his journey. He will o to Hir mingham, Atlanta and up the coast t Washington, thence Lack home. He will have traveled between 12.000 and la.OOO miles by the time he gets back to Greenfield. Mr. Harps said that he adopted this method of educating his boys a.s to the wonders of their native land. The best way to see it. he said, was to tour it in an automobile, and he wanted his boys to see it. The party rrosswl the Rocky Mountain range thre-e times, : visited the expositions at San Fran I cisco and San Diego, went through md th is Dr. OrviUe Derby who Drougnt tne i.u . Zm ,: hlthe Grand Canyon and saw all of na- the great meteorite trom tne state oi touuu i , """" i ture's marvels in the West that II- Bahia to Rio de Janeiro, inis meteor- uuuwa. : a I 4Kn lnriraci in 5 n v museum It is I " ,.t. fwt inn- nimost five The finest diamond ever discovered Z tn width nnd'its weight when it in Brazil is known as "The Star of the fell was about 12.000 pounds. It was South." It weighed in the rough 25 first discovered in 1784. and the fol- carats and 125 carats when cut. The lowln- yeaS an attempt was made to next was the Dresden green diamond, convey it to the town of Bahia by which weighed 119 1-2 carats, and an- mean of a truck built for the pur- other was the Star of Minas. which se It took the men three days to weighed 175 carats. Dr Derby thinks foad it and eighty oxen dragged it a that these three diamonds were of the distance of ' 1 500 feet to the bed of a same original form Each was a com- iream near by. whore they had to bination of curved faces consisting of stream nwi . . - Anrn Hcir from a Diane surface. along the Lincoln Highway Santa Fe trail. In the total population of ths Uni ted States more than two-fifths of all persons over three-fifths of all the males, but considerably less than one fifth of all the females were engaged in gainful occupation in 1910. In the population of 10 years of age and over more than on-fifth of all persons over four-fifths of the males but less than one-fourth of the females wer & - r-i ft 5 x 5 i If us i 'J i: i r? 5 1 t IP .1 "J ; r i 1 1 i - i ''fe f t ' i n