OCR Interpretation

The citizen-Republican. (Scotland, Bon Homme County, S.D.) 1???-19??, August 26, 1920, Image 7

Image and text provided by South Dakota State Historical Society – State Archives

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn99062010/1920-08-26/ed-1/seq-7/

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Name "E&yer^ cm patting
"Bayer Tablets of Aspirin" Is genu
ine Aspirin proved safe by millions
and prescribed by physicians for over
twenty years. Accept only an unbroken
"Bayer package" which contains proper
d/rections to relieve Headache, Tooth
ache, Earache, Neuralgia, Rheumatism,
Colds and Pain. ,Handy tin boxes of 12
tablets cost few cents. Druggists also
sell larger "Bayer packages." Aspirin
Is trade mark Bayer Manufacture Mon
oaceticacidester of Salicylicacid.—Adv.
Mr. Brown Somewhat Hasty in Blam.
ing the Gramophone for Those
Unearthy Sounds.
Perfect peace reigned in the
Brown's household. The head of the
family, his day'B work over, was read
It is said that
anticipation of the eve­
ning meal which Mrs. lirown was
busy preparing in the kitchen.
The gentle stillness was suddenly
broken by eerie sounds, apparently
coming from the next house—a weird
moaning, developing into heart-rend
ing wails and harrowing shriek*.
Mr. Brown jumped up.
"It's Mrs. Wood's confounded gram
ophone playing Tosti's 'Good-by*"
he cried. "Lizzie"—to his oldest
daughter—"go and implore her to stop
It I Tell her I'm 111—tell her we're
all 111, anything you like, only make
her leave off!"
The cl^ld obedientfy hurried out,
and two minutes later caue rushing
"It's not Mrs. Wood's gramophone,
dad," she said. "It's the Murphjs
down the street opening a tin of
corned beef!"
Forests to Pay Country's Expenses.
scheme has been outlined for the
county of Otsego in New York by
•which forests now existing and those
to be planned will pay the operating
expenses of the county in the near
future. Each of the twenty-four
townships in the county will under
take to plant 100 acres of trees and
the profits _o£ these tracts will soon
be sufficient to take care of the run
ning expenses of the county, so that
taxes will be lowered to the minimum
is the quickest
Hot wafer
djz^i Sure Relief
Harvest 20
to 45
Bishal ta km Wheat
in Western Canada
Think what that means to you in
gooi hard dollars with tho great de
mand lor wheat at higfh prices. Many
farmers in Western Canada have paid
for their land from a single crop. The
*ame success may still be yours, lor,
you can buy on easy terms.
Farm Land at $15 to
$30 an Acre
located near thriving towns, good mar
kets. railways—land of a kind which
grows 20 to 45 bushels of wheat to the
•ere. Good grazing lands at low prices
convenient to your grain farm enable
you to reap the profit* from stock rais
ing and dairying.
Learn the Facts About
Western Canada
—-low taxation (none on improvements),
healthful climate, good schools,
churches, pleasant social relationships,
prosperous and industrious people.
For Illustrated literature, map*, d«acrlp
tlon ot farm opportunities in Manitoba,
Saskatchewan, and Alberta, reduced
railway rates, etc.. write Department
pt Immigration, Ottawa,-Can., or
Coflk, Dnnr 117, W*tirto«i, South tat
W. V. Buatti, Room 4, lu IMf.. Oath*, Nth.
and I. A. Sarrttt, 311 iaektta St.. St. Paul, NIM.
-SfoxnacA -Kidneys-H—rt-U-ror
Keep the vital organs healthy by
regularly taking the world's stand-'
pro remedy for kidney, lirer,
bladder and uric acid trouble*-*-
The National Remedy of Holland tor
-centuries and endorsed by Queen WllhaJ
mlna. At all druggists, three sizes.
s»nn C«U Medal on crtij In
aad accept taiutiaa
CO,, NO/35-1920.
if -.V
Oil and Speed.
From the New York World.
Because of the war, Atlantic competi
tition for speed is practically over. The
record for a crossing has rested un
broken 10 years—an unprecedented in
terval. Few big ships and practically
no fast ones are being completed, unless
they were begun or planned before the
Tet the Aquitania, which left New
York July 31, made as an oil burner a
new record of short distance speed when
she logged the last 129 miles into Cher
bourg at an average rate of 27.40 knots,
or 31 land miles, an hour. Her captain
Is not unreasonable in expecting her to
excel for an entire voyage the 1910 time
of her sister, the Mauretaia, four days
10 hours and 41 minutes. New York to
So much for oil. Such instances of its
use and evidences of its value in trans
portation appeal to "mingled entotion8."
It is a great thing to cut down the man
killing work of ocean line stokers and
In land traffic to lessen or eliminate
smoke and the danger of forest flres.
But the common stock of oil and its dis
tillates is being so swiftly exhausted,
often in senates and selfish ways, that
coal may yet resume its old importance
In a spendthrift world.
Why They Can Do It.
From the Milwaukee Journal.
The American public has had a vague
idea that there has been more or less
profiteering during and since the war,
but the exact evidence is usually lack
Investigators found one instance of
stockings manufactured at a cost of
97 a dozen, sold to the wholesaler at
(14 a dozen, sold to the retailer at $24 a
dozen, sold to the consumer in one case
at $3.60 a pair and in another case at
|6.60 ar'pair. -''5-
The manufacturer took 100 per cent.
l^^nSStice That Failed.
Txrv.. Rwiwi^Tlti London Times.
War betweenVoitm* 2'e Vy wnich tho allies planned to end the
nation swent b»«?d the bbtaWevlsts vere mide public/ la wave of itidig
ed as eurrendtfr
latlon i^S_$tlonal
provislorts for temporary peace were regard-
-sheviam .5 clones with a graphic lllustria.tion of "what .bol
says* to its neighbors," the correspondent of the London Times
who haye
It is now learned that the Lithuanian government on July 12 signed an
agreement with the bolshevists whereby Lithuania receives the whole of the
yilna and Kovno district. According to figures supplied by the Polish for
k? °"lcet the total pouplation of Lithuania, including the Polish area, will,
be 4,500,000 of which under 2,000,000 are Lithuanians and the remainder Poles,
Jews and White Russians. If Poland is forced to accept strictly the principle
of nationality on her eastern frontier, why should she be deprived of the
benefit thereof on the northeast?
I understand that the Polish government would not have accepted the
-armistice terms unless it had distinctly understood that in fKe even{ of their
rejection, or subsequent infraction, by the bolshevists Poland could count oiS
all necessary support, moral and material, from Great Britain and" Shanes.
One of these conditions "was that their troops should remain 50 kilometers
(31% miles) distant from the Polish line.
"What bolshevism means to its neighbors can hardly be appreciated by
those who live at a distance". Only this morning I heard from M. Rus
sanowski the ghastly manner in which his cousin, Count Groholski, was done
to death by the bolshevists. The count was superintendent of a Red Cross
train, in which he toas trying to get refugees «and wounded away from
Proskuroff, in the Ukraine, last week. The train was struck by -a shell and
could not proceed. Bolshevists swept down upon it and hacked all to death
—the wounded, the women and the children. After 40 hours the Poles recov
ered the corpses.1' The barbarities committed upon Count Groholski's body
were so awful tlfat it is quite impossible to repeat them. Most of the bodies
were mangled in a terrible manner and all the wounded were killed."
A Chapter on Speculating.
From Bankers' Trust Company.
The desire to make money speedily in ventures out of the beaten path
of conservative investment is not confined to individuals. Governments
have sometimes yielded to it with discouraging results.
Such was the experience of the British government some 200 years
ago when it undertook to get rid of the unfunded national debt by back
ing an operation into which it entered with the South Sea Company. The
details are presented in a study of "English Public Finance," by the Bank
ers' Trust Company.
This venture, according to the study, was based upon the "fund of
credit" idea, "Fund of credit" was a theory prevalent in the latter part
of the Seventeenth and earlier part of the Eighteenth centuries. It watf^
the basis of John Law's famous "Mississippi Company," which about 1718
had such a meteoric career in France.
Also in pursuance of this idea the Bank of England was organized. The
entire original capital of the bank as well as part of the deposits were
loaned to the nation. This left the bank as a basis for conducting its busi
ness a "fund of credit" founded upon its loan to the government. Similar
was the policy of parliament in forcing the East India" Company to pass
on to tlJfe government in exchange for its obligations the proceeds of its
sales of stock.
The "fund of credit" theory was applied in the South Sea Company's
scheme by the granting by the British government to the South Sea Com
pany of a monopoly of trading rights in the Pacific ocean, and almost ex
clusive trading rights in the southwestern Atlantic.
In considerat^in of these trading rights, which were expected to have
great value, the company was to exchange its stock for the outstanding
unfunded government debt and in addition was to pay the government
$2,500,000. The government was to pay the company interest at the rate
of 6 per cent, per annum upon all government securities which it should
thus acquire and in addition $40,000 a year for management.
The conversion offer was accepted between 1711 and 1719 by holders of
about $60,000,000 of government obligations. Then those associated in con
trol of the scheme decided upon conversion of the entire balance of the
British debt into the company's stock, which if successful would havo given
the company a capital of around $200,000,000.
It would also have secured a practical monopoly of the trading and
banking business of the nation.
The Bank of England and the East India Company opposed this project
Competitive bidding by the bank led the South Sea Company to offer to
pay the government $37,500,000 in consideration of all holders of govern
ment securities, except the Bank of England and East India Company,
converting these holdings into South Sea stock.
The government in turn was to pay at first 5 per cent, on its obliga
tions acquired by the South Sea Company, then 4 per cent. The advantage
to the govei'iimeiit was to be the- saving cf 1 per ccn».. um-iCot aim die
receipt of $37,500,000 cash. Profit to the promoters was to come from stock
market operations. By manipulation South Sea stock was forced up 200,
300, 800 and finally 1,050 per cent.
As their terms with the government were for even exchanges, the pro
moters accumulated a large amount of treasury stock which they were
able to sell at the advanced prices. The magnitude of the operation and
the rapid advance in South Sea stock brought other promotion schemes
into the field and a wild orgy of speculation ensued.
The collapse when it came was sudden and severe. The exchange of
public securities for the company's stock had been achieved, but the specu
lators were most of them ruined.
The government, according to the Bankers' Trust Company's study, had
to surrender its right to the $37,500,000 and to make the company a tem
porary loan of $5,000,000 in the form of exchequer bills. It also had to pay
the interest at 5 and later, 4 per cent, on the company's holdings of gov
ernment securities. Strangely enough, the company itself remained sol
vent though conspirators in the scheme were punished and the public vic
timized It existed as a public debt holding corporation until 1854.
was intensified by the reye-
b&lhhevlsts under which the Kovno and Vilna
it an a I a is a W a a
turned from Spa have a difficult busi-
.^ the country, over which a wave of patriotic ardor is surging,
nam*,* accepting the terms of the armistice imposed by Mr. Lloyd
woniri ®*®te that only the knowledge that in the event of refusal they
'rom all supplies of ammunition from western Europe com­
pelled tham to accept.
tiro 'h sidered unfair by Poland that its army should be expected to re"
ILnf6 :he
terms are discussed. Should the negotiations break
Poland would have to start again with the enemy 140 miles from War-
terms involve the retirement of the Polish army 125 miles
was fixed by the supreme council in December, 1919, as the
i» »T JCr i?s^e which the Polish administration might be definitely estab
lished. Prom the south northwards the line follows the old Russo-Qalician
rroiuier to the Bug, then follows the river to Brest-Litovsk, and thence past
urodno (exclusive). North of Grodno it turns sharply west, passing just
north of Suwalki. Thus the whole of Polish Lithuania is excluded.
profit on cost, the wholesaler took 71
per cent, and the retailer took 75 pel
cent, in one case and 175 per cent. 11
the other.
Here were stockings which cost lea
than 60 cents a pair for manufacturing
but which went to the consumer as high
at $5.50 a pair. The original cost wai
multiplied by more than nine.
The consumer's extravagance, his will
ing payment of a foolish price for stock'
ings, makes him in part to blame. Th«
dealer would not charge ridiculous price*
if there were not a gullible public to paj
them. The cupidity of manufacturer*
and handlers On tto other hand is oi
lourse indefensible.
From the Kansas City Star.
The fact that Denmark now has te
pay England prices for coal 10 times
greater than the pre-war prices has
started a revival of the once well begun
enthusiasm over coal from (Greenland,
a move proposed some years ago by a
returned explorer. These coal deposits
were said to have teen discovered
through the fact that some of them
were burning and had been presumably
since for many years.
A survey was made at that time and
'ey wa
the coal deposits were found to b« ex
tensive and of splendid quality,
thermore, they were said to be slt-
uated with regard to the sea that ship
ment would be possible. Itie only dif
ficulty would be the very short season
during which vessels coulf load and
the rigors of the climate and the at
tendant mining difficulty.
It Is said, however, that the present
coal crisis will sufficiently stimulate
Scandinavian brains so that these dif
ficulties will be overcome. One the
things that observers say make this
seem probable is the fact that the Scan
dinavian ship companies are now all
extraordinarily rich. During the war,
despite their submarine losses, they
made vast profits. They played both
ends against the middle, it is admitted,
and made big profits out of both the
Germans and the allies. To their con
tinued prosperity- is very largely due
the Improvement in general ScanBi?
navian rate of exchange which luu?
fwi £u 5tSv« January 1.
u. humanjnventory.
The fourth annual report on btrth sta
tietics of the United States census of
flce shows that 1918 wife a poor yew.
The birth rate continued to fall slowly
while the. gre*t epidemic of
Influenza jumped the death rate .up. In
Kew Hampshire the births exceeded tho
deaths by only «L
In Maryland the death rate was S4.8
and the birth rate 24.6 and in Vermont
they were 18.7 and 80.5 respectively.
Since there was no immigration, the
country gained very little to population
In 1918. Utah is the only state where the
gain in population (death rate 13.7 and
blHh rate 31.9) merited the approval of
a society for the promotion of increase
In population.
A study of the relation of births to
the birth country of parents is interest
ing. Those born in Germany haye the
largest families (4.6 average), and "also
the largest number of living children
(3.9 average). Of the children born to
mothers born in Denmark, Norway and
Sweden, 90.4 per cent. live. Some others
are: United States, 89.4 Austria, 83.7
Hungary, 81.7 Canada, 87 England,
Scotland and Wales, 87.1 Ireland, 87.8
Germany (including German Poland),
86.1 Italy, 83.9 Poland, 82.8 Russia,
86.6. Of the children bom to Scandlnav
ian born mothers nearly 10 per cent,
more live than is the case with children
born to Polish born mothers.
Of each 1,000 babies born, 190.9 die be
fore reaching 1 year of age.
The various racial elements contrib
ute in the following order: Poles, 172
Negro, 162 Austriarm, 138 Italians, 119
Cnadians, 118 Hungarians, 106 Irish,
105 Germans, (principally Jews), 91
United States, 94 England, Scotland and
Wtrtes, 93 JDentnark, 72. Average all
CTOujw, 100.9.
The report calls attention to the Aus
tralian baby death rate of 56.9, about
60 better than ours. About one-half of
this difference (or 26) is due to lower
death rate in the first three moths of
the year and the remainder to better
rates in the last nine months.
One heavy death rate among babies
less than 3 months of age is due to mid
wives, poor maternal facilities, and gen
erally poor midwifery service.
The principal causes of death among
babies over 3 months of age and less
than 12 are pneumonia and diarrhoea.
Dut to the influenza epidemic, the pneu
monia death rate of 1918 was high, but
at that babies suffered but little com
paratively from the disease.
In 1918 the baby death rate was scarcely
raised at all, whereas the death rate for
all ages was raised over 28 per cent..
Wholly due to influenza.
Thanks to better care of babies, more
Intelligent motherhood and better milk
supplies, the summer diarrhoea death
rate falls steadily year by year.
.The Foreign Debt of Russia.
Murray Stewart in The London Times.
Sir: Russia's war debt to England is,
In round figures, £550,000,000. England's
war debt to America is just over £1,
000,000,000, but of this rather more than
half was incurred for munitions and ma
terials supplied to Russia on condition
that the British treasury undertook pay
ment. Russia therefore really owes
England over £1,000,000,000, in addition
to municipal and private debts. Tho
British government has made it a con
dition precedent to the. resumption of
trade relations with Russia that private
debts shall be acknowledged, but, so
far, has ignored the question of Russia's
public foreign indebtedness.
That the soviet government should
seek to discriminate between private and
public obligations, the hope of find
ing themselves eventually In a position
to repudiate the latter, is not surpris
ing. The surprising thing is to find the
British government acquiescing in such
discrimination. No greater encourage
ment to world-wide revolution can be
conceived than to allow the soviet gov
ernment to repudiate Russia's foreign
debt. For the successful assertion of
the principle that international indebted
ness can be got rid of simply by Setting
up new forms of government and dis
owning the obligations of the old would
set up a precedent of which the bolshe
vist elements ill all countries wouid cer
tainly not confine the application to
public debts contracted abroad.
Plague of Rats.
From the Indianapolis News.
Millions of rats are overrunning Aber
tillery (Monmouth), England, and neigh
borhood. While the congregation was
leaving a Baptist church in Tillery
street on a recent Sunday an army of
rats ran s.~cng therr,. One wuman col
lapsed. All means have been tried to
keep down the plague. Traps, poison,
shooting, dogs, and cats have been
used, but the rats have not only sur
vived, but also thrived. The medical of
ficer of health, Dr. Bailie Smith, says
the rats are of two kinds—brown and
black. The black rats, as a rule, keep
to the sewers, but the brown rats climb
anything—telegraph poles and rain and
gas pipes. They swarm everywhere. It
was suggested to the Abertillery dis
trict council that expert rat destroyers
should be employed, but the local staff
have stated that they could do better
than the experts, the matter has been
left to them with discretionary power to
call in help if necessary.
All In the Viewpoint.
From The Jayhawk.
Things and conditions are largely the
reflection of our mental viewpoint. To
one person, a dandelion is a tiny sun
radiating a glorious gcflden glow to an
other it is a common weed-not worth
An old story illustrates the point:
A man who had just moved into a
small Pennsylvania town fell into con
versation with an old Quaker who was
accustomed to sit on a bench in the
quiet square in the center of the village.
•What kind of people live here?"
asked the newcomer.
"What manner of people didst thee
live amongst before?" returned the
"Oh, they were mean, narrow, suspU
clous, and very unfair," answered the
"Then," said the Quaker, "I am sorry,
but thee will find the same manner of
people here."
Not long afterward the Quaker was
accosted by another man who had come
to live In the town.
•What sort of people are they here?"
said the stranger.
"What manner of people didst thee
live amongst before?" said the old
A warm smile spread over the new
ccmer's face.
"Friend," he answered, "they were
the best folks In .the world. They were
always friendly, k)nd and lovable, and I
h&ted to leave thetn!''
The old Quaker beamed.
"Welcome, neighbor." he said, "be of
good cheer, for thee will find the same
fine people here!"
Mellen Pessimistic.
From the Springfield Republican,
Interviews with Charles H. Mellen on
the railroad question are periodic sen
sations with the Boston press. Mr. Mel
len's views can invariably be described
by the hackneyed adjective "stimulat
ing." His latest pronouncement Is ut
terly pessimistic. His view of the Euch
Cummins act is that a mechanism has
been established for bringing about a
never-ceasing round of wage advances
and rate increases, which will result in
government ownership and probably In
the nationalization of other industries.
R. J. Lowell, Sweetwater, Toons,
says, "Eatonlc helped
but it wis my davghter %lio yst
marvelous benefits. 8be codd nor
even take a drink of wfcter Hr!t&oQt
ayfol misery, trot it relieved her she
Is feeling much better. All tfcla from
one box so send me four more at
once." '-'H-.,
Hundreds of pec^le now take
•atonic one or two tablets Alter efcch
meal keeps them In good, health,
feeling fine* full of pep. Batonlc
simply takes up the excess acidity
and poisons and canies them right ont
of the system. Of course, when the
cause of tite misery Is removed, the
sufferer ca&not help but get well.
Ton will find it a .quick, sure relief
for heartburn, indigestion, sour, add,
gassy, bloated stomach. It costs but
a trifle and your druggist will supply
you. If you don*t feel well, you five
eatonlc a test Adv.
After Using.'
The woman was the author of a
cookery book that had been published
at her request with wide margins and
occasional blank pages for notes and
additional recipes.
Often she had expressed a wish to
see an old copy of the hook and find
to wliat tise uie blank pages had
been put. One day In a second-hand
book store her husband unearthed an
old volume. Noticing that It had been
annotated freely, he bought it. After
a day or two he said:
"How about the notes in that cook
ery book? Were they Interesting?"
"No," she said curtly "they didn't
amount to anything."
When he got a chance he looked
through the book himself. Every note
the book contained was a remedy for
dyspepsia and kindred ailments!—
Dallas News.
vv -r-
He Drank the Gravy.
"Too many cooks spoil the broth,"
but If there is no broth—well, here's
the story as the young man told it:
"I went to a church luncheon and
thought it mighty strange that the
meat was brought in first and a few
minutes later a bowl of soup.
"So I laid the meat aside, reached
over for the soup and begun dipping
my spoon in It.
"There was a loud cry from the
ladles giving the luncheon, and one of
them rushed up, crying:
"Goodness gracious, man, you're
drinking the gravy!"—Columbus Dis
Only Thinks He Is.
"Mrs. Jones, is your husband a
member of any secret society?" "He
thinks he is, but he talks ,in his
Buffalo, N. Y.—"I goffered with
organic inflammation and displace*
meat. When lifting I had inch pain
and bearing down that I was not
able to stand op, and it hurt me to
walk or go np or down stairs. I waa
going to a doctor without anr re
sults and he aaid the safest thing
would be to hare an operation. I
meta lady who told me she had
three operations and was not well
until she took Lydia E. Pinkham's
Vegetable Compound,
Ifelt relief after taking two bottles
of vegetable Compound and I kept
on with It until I was cured. I al
ways use Lydia E. Pinkham's Llrer
Pills and they are fine, Syeiytbing
used to turn sour on my stomach ana
the Llrer Pills relieved that."—Mrs.
Buffalo, N. Y.
S» iw
Fargo Avenue,
•chy? KvSiagfind
oaf you 'ih
htodaehfe* and
easier and help tiw
Reliable Information
All American women know of the great success of
LydiaE. Pinkham's Vegetable Compound in restor
ing to health women who suffered from ailments pe
culiar to their sex, yet there are some who are skeptical
and do not realize that all that is claimed for it
absolutely true—if they did, our laboratoiy would not
be half large enough to supply the demand, though
today it is the largest in the country used for
manufacture of one particular medicine.
The Facts contained in the following two letters
prove of benefit to many women
The fact Is, the Beet Medicine for W
aad likely
new strength to
Ask year
tired farmer/1.
andria, & D„ jMqrs«
"I raftered trot* **3
ful backaChe and
had in clr. a-In,
across^ tny kidney*
couldn't, get ^much
sleep. I could hardly
bend ©ir«r--'--«:r.,
straighten up either.
had to g*t ut often
at night to pass the
kidney secretions and
they ware highly
colored and scanty.
Doan's Kidney pills made my kidneys
well and cured me of backache."
Three hexes
Cuticura Soap
The Velvet Touch
For the
Sesp 25c, Oiitmat 25 ul 50c, Tikes 25c.
BBS to join water users' association. 1(4
W. 4 S„ Salt Lake City.
MOVIK8! Stories Constantly Needed Hsitfe
Jthe World's Motion Picture Capitol.
some prices. You have Ideas—write
Writers earn $200 weekly. Thor Pbotoj
Instructions sent prepaid, $1.00. Five-rive-dap
Money-Back Guarantee. Check, or M.C
Thor Co., S22 Grant Butldiii#,' 'Los Angeles.
•O. now.
««0f A
Customers for all prices.
CONSULT US before buying or 1
X480 Temple Cenrt
'Peonls. golf snd 'l kind* si
ammunition fishing tar io etc.
gooda GU*
or write.
315-wir 4th Street Bleu City, leva
Films and Photo
Sacramento, Calif.—"I
ganio trouble and had
pain and swelling in the lower part
of my side that I could not stand on
my feet or even let the bed clothes
touch my side.
thinking I would not
baok tor months. If
for Amateart
Prices on application
608 Pierce St SieoaCitr.lowa
bad or*
I gave up pay wc
be able to to
mother aa
baok tor months. My mother ad
visedme to takeLyd la X. Pinkham's
Vegotable Ccmpound as it had saved
Jier life at one time, and it put me
in a wonderful condition ia a couple
of weeks, so I can keep ea workinc,
I woriTfe a department
have tp stand on my feet all day and
I do net have any mcce_paine. 1
rarely reoommena your Vegetable
Compound to*11 myide&&aad yos
may these faeta aa testimon
ial/'—BE*THA J. Pausa, OBO
St. Saciamento, Calif.

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