Why the United States
Opened Hostilities Against
Great Britain 100 Years
Ago—Quick Means of Com
munication Would Have
Prevented Conflict —Na
tional Memorial to Perry,
the Hero of Lake Erie.
hundred years ago this month
the United Status was in the
thick of war with Great Britain.
It was tbo first serious dispute
after the Revolution.
Trouble had been brewing since the
fight for freedom had ended. In view
Of the attitude of England, the general
congress asked the several states to
endow It with power for fifteen yours,
by means of which It might cause Eng
land to be more liberal. It was In
tended to keep out English goods, as
American exports were discriminated
against by Great Britain. But the ap
peal of congress was In vain. Difficul
ties soon arose between the United
States and Great Britain, each accus
ing the other with infractions of the
treaty of peace. John Adams was
tent to England in an endeavor to ar
range matters, but he could accomplish
Things became worse until congress
waa placed on a higher basis and
George Washington was elected presi
dent and John Adams vice president.
Thla was in 1788.
TROUBLB OVER 8EAMEN
About At* years later millions of dol
at American goods were
done away with by Great Britain.
American people were violently agi
tated. Another and more serioos move
Which perhaps did more to open hostili
ties between the two countries was
the Impressment of American seamen
Into the British service. High wages,
humane treatment and security from
danger to be found In the American
service had attracted many British
Bailors to tt. Threatened with a weak
ening of bar naval strength, England,
on the theory that "once an Engllsh
ihan always an Englishman,'' took
American ships British -and
M: Amertcan sailors alike, impressing them
J| Into the royal navy.
|f At. times American ships were left
ibftfrleps In midocean because of ta
ll' sufficient crews to. man them. War
If V'wemed now inevitable. Chief Justice
jobn Day was then sent to England to
settlement of all questions in
volved In the controversy. He was
du*«ng Atyujaa' term In dfllce
*asni*fe- After Jefferson was made
another series of depreda-
A se^nd lmprwsinient of seamen
American commerce and 'pea'
..«0imneuee& President JeljTeraon
Centennial of War of 1812
I largo a second nonintereourse act was
substituted, which, though it practi
cally prohibited trade with tin: groat
warring powers of Europe, gave some
promise of improving the condition of
commerce. With this change Madison
became president, March -J, 1S09. Tho
noninloivourse with Groat Britain was
suspended three months later, but was
again put in force soou afterward. The
year 1S09 proved the nonintercourse
Ineffective, more Injurious to Ameri
cans than to England and France, for
now lioth powers had a chance to en
rich themselves by enforcing the laws
of tho United States against her own
commerce. In 1810 Napoleon, with im
punity, seized .$10,000,000 'worth of
property. In 1S11 congress prohibited
all importations of English goods. This
caused some alarm in England, but
there was no abatement of Impress
WIDENING OF THE BREACH
While the ire of America was con
stantly rising there came the news in
Slay, 1S11, only three months before
most of the congressional elections
were to be held, tUat the English sloop
Tjlttle Belt had practically annihilat
ed the United States frigate Presi
dent. Other events occurred during
tho summer and autfimn of 1S11 which
tended to widen the breach with Eng
land. The Indians on tho western
frontier formed a confederation against
the United States. The famous Shaw
nee chief Tecumseh was at the head
of the movement. In a battle on Nov.
7, 1S11, In western Indiana, General
William Henry Harrison gained a com
plete victory. Tecumseh soon after
joined the British, nnd it was believed
Uiat the British had instigated his at
When the next congress was elected
and Henry Clay was made speaker a
warlike feeling existed in that body.
After long and weary debates war final
ly was declared against Great Britain
on June 18, 1S12. The army at that
time amounted to 6,744 regulars, which
was Increased to 25,000 by congress,
anid a law provided for a second volun
teer army of 50.000 men. The regular
army during the war never exceeded
The conquest of Canada was first
sought after. General William Hull
crossed the Detroit river with 1,850
men in July, 1812, but was defeated
by Major General Brock of the Eng
lish army. More than 2,000 men,
thirty-three guns and the whole state
of Michigan were thus lost in the first
part of the contest
The campaign of 1318 was centered
around Lake Erie. It was here that
Commander Perry gained his great
naval-victory and broke the naval pow
er of (Sreat Britain in North America.
MIQHT HAVE AVERTED WAR
The United States in the war of 1812
was', defeated in a military sense, al
though .victorious morally.
If there had been a'cable under the
£V»vS %•:'.• '•v-'y
COPVRJC-HT J9IZ BY PEPftV'S VICTOW
PEPPY AT BATH EOFLAKEEPIE
and Ids gory "young Republicans" had
mustered sutneient strength to declare
war the British parliament already
was ili-.,- iissing the abandonment of the
objectionable practices of which the
Americans complained. If that fact
had been known in Washington the
action taken by congress a century-ago
would have been made impossible.
When the peace commissioners met
in Ghent in IS 1-1 the Americans were
willing to accept peace on terms most
advantageous to Great Britain. The
American arms had been notoriously
unsuccessful on land, and although the
naval victories were most glorious, the
wiser heads of the Madison administra
tion were ready to quit. The capital
had been captured and sacked, the
public buildings burned and tho presi
dent forced to flee into the country.
The land forces had proved to be most
incapable, and there had been scandal
after scandal in the army.
Therefore the American commission
ers were willing to sign a treaty of
peace which said a great deal about
the boundary between tho United
States and Canada, but never a word
about tho right of Great Britain to
search American ships and impress
The British publfc deemed the treaty
of Ghent to be a complete victory for
England, and if the news of tho con
clusion of peace had reached America
at once there is little doubt that even
Americans would have admitted vir
tual defeat. But more than three weeks
after the treaty was signed, and long
before news of it had reached Ameri
can Bhores, General Andrew Jackson
at New Orleans had destroyed the Brit
ish army and had restored the glory of
DIPLOMACY LOST CHANCE
The moral victory won by the United
States might easily have been achieved
by diplomacy, for It was not in battle,
nor yet in the treaty of Ghent, that the
victory was recorded. Its first record
Is In the treaty of July 1S15, signed
after the news of the battle of New
Orleans had reached London and which
was called a commercial treaty. It
provided for amicable intercourse be
tween tho merchant shios of both na
tions and opened the British ports of
the West Indies to American vessels.
This was followed by the treaty of
1S17, limiting the armament on the
The Terry memorial, which is being
erected at Put-iw-Bay, O., is in commem
oration of the victory of Commodore
Oliver Hazard Perry, his officers and
men at the battle of Lake Erie, and
also as a memorial to the hundred
years of peace between this country
nnd Great Britain. An appropriation
of about $700,000 was made by the
United States government and various
states for the building of the. memo
Put-in-Bay Is- between South Bass
and Gibraltar islands. It was here that
Commodore Perry!s squadron lay In
September, 1S13, before the battle, and
to which it returned with the captured
British ships. A lookout on the high
bluffs of Gibraltar island saw the opr
posing fleet, and the battle was fought
about eight miles to tlie northwest.
After the victory tbe troops under Gen
eral William Henry Harrison were
LIFE OF A COUNTRY EDITOR.
A* 8a*n by Newspaper Man With
Soma Opinions of Interest.
As class country editors are the
most versatile people on earth, Klrner
Peterson told a meeting of Kansas
editors. They have to cover a wide
range of human nrtivities and do so.
That is why they, as a rule, are not
great financial successes and, on the
other hand, get the most tun out of
Specialization seems to be the inex
orable price of financial success. Some
country editors attain financial success
by specialization in the business end,
others by paragraphing, others by chas
ing locals, others by bearing down on
the subscription list pedal, others by
job printing, and so it goes.
The job of the country editor is in a
class by itself. There is no more simi
larity between the work of a country
editor and that of a city newspaper
worker than there is between peeling
potatoes and playing a tuba. The city
man is a specialist. He writes para
graphs or attends police court or oper
ates a linotype—Just one thing and
Out in the country town bis com
posite brother is tho vhoje works.
Jumping lightly from the ink keg to
the subscription book, sorting rules or
collecting bills, washing rollers or
writing paragraphs. He cannot be
master of all trades, but he can be
master of one which will bring him
the necessary ghost perambulator. Ills
position gives him an opportunity of
having a lot of fun out of life if he
looks at things with a healthy view
point. And so he goes on, the average
successful country editor, "toiling, re
joicing, sorrowing," jack at all trades
and master of one.
What Might Be Done.
What mi^ht be clone if men were ivlse—
What glorious deeds, my suffering broth
Would thoy unite
In luvc and right
Anrt cease their scorn of one another?
Oppression's heart might he Imbued
With kindling drops of loving kindness.
And knowledge pour
Krom shore to shore.
Light on the eyes of mental blindness.
All slavery, warfare, lies and wrongs,
All vlcc and crime, might die together,
And v. ine and corn
To each man born
Be free as warmth in summer weather.
The meanest wretch that ever trod,
The deepest sunk in guilt and sorrow,
Might stand erect
In self respect
And share the teeming world tomorrow.
What might bo done? This might be done.
And more than this, my suffering broth
More than the tongue
K'er said or sung
It men were wise and loved each other.
—St. Louis Globe-Democrat.
Getting Married In Borneo.
In Borneo the bride nnd bridegroom
sit on metal logs before tho priest who
gives thom cigars and betel while he
blesses them, lie waves above them
two fowls bound togcthor. The bride
groom then places the betel in his
bride's mouth and cigar between her
lips. They are married.
Tip of Florida Never Freezes.
Tho southern tip of Florida is tlio only
portion of the United States which nev
er has experienced freezing weather.
A King In the Hole.
One of our naval officers tells of an
incident that occurred when an Amer
ican war vessel was lying at anchor
In a European port on which occasion
It was visited by a monarch with his
Ono of the members of this suit, re
splendent In gold lace and decorations,
with a big sword at his side and sport
ing a huge mustache, was exploring
the ship, and, being ignorant of things
nautical, had leaned against the main
hatch wind sail, mistaking it for a
mast. Of what ensued tho officer of
the deck was informed by the boat
Bwaln's mate, who had seen the catas
trophe and who broke the news of it
"You'll excuse me, sir, but I think
one of them kings has fell down the
main hatch, sir."—Harper's Magazine.
"Mrs. Gabber fell downstairs and bit
her tongue in two."
"I feel sorry for her husband. She
was a terror when she had only on*
The Ingenuous Small Boy.
Small Boy—Don't you have good
times when you travel in the train?
Mrs. Grabber—Why, dear?
Small Boy—Well, mamma said you
were double faced, and I think it would
be an awful lot of fun to look out of
two windows nt once.—Boston Kecord.
A Wall Flower.
Fan—Why don't-you dance moreT
""^vw •. !v
By I. M.
A baseball umpire ought to have a
voice with tho strength of the train
man in the big railroad station who
bawls out the leaving time of the
trains. A voice measuring up to every
requirement lu this respect is possess
ed by Umpire Owens, who took the
place of Manager O'Day on the stall
of President Lynch.
Whenever the Reds have been add
ing to their laurels Hank O'Day has
been handed a large share of the credit
by an expert observer of Cincinnati.
O'Day, having been a National league
umpire twenty years, knows a thing
or two about rival twirlers and the
weak spots of Individual batsmen. As
manager he rules with stern discipline.
A boom for tall, powerful looking
pitchers has been started by Manager
Bresnahan's expression of belief that
this type is a desirable asset to club,
because, so says Bresnahan, the big
pitcher inspires the batter with ap
prehension and often fear. The batter
concludes, adds the manager of the
St. Louis Nationals, that a little man
on the hillock is a guarantee that there
is nothing to fear from him in the
line of lightning speed.
Bobby Wallace's grent record as
shortstop of the St. Louis Browns will
probably stand forever. The record
books do not show where there is an
infielder who lias performed at that
position for thirteen years and ha*
such a remarkable average.
In the thirteen years Wallace has
fielded for a percentage of .040—indeed
phenomenal. One year lie topped the
field. That was in 1902, when he
broke into the American league. How
ever, he always has been ueflr the top.
His total number of assists and put
outs shows that he covers acfes of
ground in his territory.
Wallace's complete record as a major
league shortstop follows:
Rank. Year. G. PO. A. E. P.C.
ion ... 123 280 417 42 .943
8. i9io. ... 99 344 83 .948
3. 1909 ... S7 193 279
who lias piloted tlie
Pittsburgh Pirates through many a
grueling campnign, lias posted the fol
lowing code of rules, to which he at
tributes much of his team's success:
First.—Don't smoke cigarettes.
Second. Don't drink. Alcoholic
stimulants used lu moderation may
do a little harm. They can do no
good, and they are dangerous.
Third.—l'on't keep late hours,
Fourth.—Don't gamble. Worrying
about an ace-full that was beaten last
night or wondering how the horses are
runniug while play Is in progress are
Fifth.—Don't be a grouch. Cheerful
AN AGGREGATION OF ABSURDITIES
First Fly—What's the matter with
Second Fly—I strained 'em counting
my eggs. One of the swatters says the
average fly lays 07,000 eggs.
"How did you come out?" I
"I think I'm about forty-seven
abort."—Cleveland Plain Dealer.
To Make a Long Story Short
Definition of a Suburbanite.
Teacher (to little boy) What'a
Little Boy—A suburbanite is
who lives in the city and sleeps in the
Up to Date Military Tactiee,
190? ... 137 286 blO 4.1 .951
6. 1907 ... 147 839 617 64* .941
1 1900 ... 13S 809 461 41 .949
4. 1905 ... 156 :-£o DOG 02 .035
2. 1S04........ ... 139 484 42 .955
1903 ... 13G 308 472 CO .928
1. 1902 ... 133 329 471 41 .951
4. 1901 ... 135 829 641 61 .934
1 1900 ... 127 828 447 49 .940
7. 1599 ... as 233 275 67 .914
PiK'ta by American Press Association.
Russell ford, New York American#
ness is a very desirable quality iu an?
body—a ball player in particular.
Sixth.-Don't procrastinate. If any«
thing interferes with reporting on litnei
cut it out. Tardiness sets a liad
Seventh.—Don't bo a backbiter. If
you have an idea that the ciul) is no|
being conducted properly tell the mann
ager about it If your suggestions are
good he'll appreciate them.
Eighth.—Don't: lie a quitter. If you
are getting a bad break in the lucJ
brace yourself and light all the harden
Ninth.—1 lon't sulk.
Tenth. -Iioc'l bait Hie umpire, r.asr
ball law gives him the advaaiage ovct
you at all times, so lh dues lioj
pay to oppose him.
When Manager 1 tarry Davis of th«^
Cleveland I'.bies moved l.ajuie to lirsfv
base he gt a crackerjaek intield coin,
binnlion. It has long been the opinion
of baseball men who oueht
that it was a mistake to let Laini*
play at second, when, batting anj
other things considered, lie would lie
far more valuable at the initial sack.
"So you are engaged to Miss P.loi*
"And do you think you are suited ta
one another?" js
"I think so we are both liars."
"Yes. I told her she was the onl»
girl I had ever loved, and she told m#
that I was the only man that had eve*
kissed her."—Houston Post
"Have j-ou spoken' of our love t«
your mother as yet'i" murmured the'1
"Xot yet," whispered the girl.
"Has she noticed nothing?"
"She has noticed that I've been aefr
lng queerly of late, but she thinks'it's
On the Heaving Deep.
Husband (near the rail)—Oh, let ma
Wife (in steamer chair)—That's Just
like you, James. You never could hold
It Often Happens.
After a banquet a prominent
was asked by a close friend:
"Well, did you manage to stay so
"Oh, yea," he replied, "but my health
was drunk."—Judge's Library.
Getting On. Sr
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