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5 SV- HK,I: 4 If III SI v.? 'ILL: &:fi:!p: 1 w'lh Si !f ci 1 8!! fi iH ij I '4\ P\l 'I' lli I $ N: & I f* ARMY ANECDOTES. Bold Boys of Both Belligerents Tell of Battles, Ballets, Bayonets, and Boiled Beans. Soldiers and Sailors' Stirring Stories of Solid Sliol and Screaming Shells. My Comrade. BY JAMES F. FITTS. There's a memory growing deeper Ab the ruthless years go by Of ii silent, nameless sleeper Who was not afraid to die, And his martyred face shines ever Through the gloom that wraps the river— Ah, death cannot, dissever That battle-wedded tie! So sword his hand was waving, No Btrap his shoulder graced, When his strong soul was braving Tho conflicts fiery waste But ho clutched his musket tightly, And his bavonet glinted brightly, And his foot was firm and sprightly, As the lino went oi swiit-paced. When tho sulphurous smoke-clouds drifted Along tho stricken field. By luminous breathings lifted, AB thunderous voices pealed— Where death was winged with lightning, Was sped with tumult frightening. Was pent with horrors heightening, Forward the good line reeled. •They trembled—but, undaunted, Held on that pitiless way T3p to tho guns they flaunted Their tattered flags that day. But where the swath was deadly, In that raging, roaring medley, His blue all spotted redly, My own bravo comrade lay. No praise for him is graven On granite proud and high, Who could not be a craven, Who did not fear to die 1 His sleep is with that hundred Who fell where volleys thundered, While the nation wept and wondered, And none recall—but X. Yet, as the years grow older. Forgotten though the name, Shall brighter grow, and bolder, The record of his fame. What though a tardy payment Ye grudge the martyr claimant? His soul in shining raiment Its heritage shall claim! —Chicago Ledger. The McCook Raid. The McCook raid was the most disas trous in its consequences to us as a regi ment, and to me individually, of any ot the numerous raids we participated in. Our brigade consisted of the Fifth and Eighth Iowa, the Fourth and First Tennessee, and the Eighth Indiana Cavalry. Major Beard commanded the Fifth, and Colonel Dorr the Eighth Iowa Colonel Brownlow, the First, and Major Stevens tho Fourth Ten nessee and Colonel Morrison the Eighth Indiana, the whole under command of Gen eral Edward McCook. We left Marietta, Georgia, in the after noon, and traveled all night toward Macon, Georgia, and in the morning we struck the Macon and Atlanta Railroad, and destroyed three or four miles of track and captured two trains with supplies for the Confederate army, which we burned. We then left in a hurry, as we were in danger of being sur rounded by infantry sent from Atlanta to intercept ns. We struck toward the Atlanta and Montgomery Bailroad, which we struck at Noonan—that is, we could not tell whether we struck it, or it struck us. The Eighth Iowa charged into the town, and was nearly all captured. Eight or ten of them got back to our regiment, and reported a solid line of infantry as far as they could see either way. We still advanced on them, and Major Beard sent forward a heavy line of skirmishers. When they were driven back we halted and waited until Major Stevens came ap with the Fourth Tennessee and formed on our left. Bight here I want to say that "better or braver men never lived than the Fourth Tennessee Cavalry. We dismounted and advanced on foot until we came in sight of the enemy, waiting for us to come to them, bnt we concluded not to go. It would have been fun for that infantry to pick us up on their bayonets, but we did not go. We juBt got back to our horses and turned back and met General McCook and the rest of the brigade. McCook laughed at our Major for backing out, and «said he did net believe Colonel l)orr was captured, lie got Major Beard on his mettle, and he challenged the General to advance at the head of the Eighth Tennes see on the town, anct he would keep him eompany with ns and the Fourth Tennes see. McCook thought he had better 6end Brownlow forward with the First Tennes see to open the way. Our Major was out of humor, and asked the General why lie wanted to send Brownlow if he thought Colonel Dorr had got through all right why not strike out himself? But the General thought he would send Colonel Brownlow. Major Beard asked him if he would permit ns to go with Colonel Brown low, but he said he wanted us to guard the rear. So we fell back and let the Indiana boys pass to the front. Colonel Brownlow now took the advance, and soon struck the Johnnies ready for him, but he suddenly tinned to the right, where he had discov ered a weak Bpot in the line, and before liiey could remedy the defect the Tennes seeans were rushing through them with jsnch a vim there was no slopping them. When General McCook with the Indiana boys tried to follow, they found a solid wall of bayonets presented at them, so they stopped. But now General McCook was getting excited. He ordered Colonel Mor rison to charge on the left, where tbey found an opening and went through. We halted, and formed a lino of bat tle to check the pursuit. We were soon engaged, and Major Stevens, with the Fourth Tennessee, was with us. Major Beard was out of humor at our com mander, as he insisted that we could havij licked Jackson if McCook had allowed the Indiana boys to help us at the right time. Beard was high-strung, and rather inclined to bo abusive sometimes, but there was no time now to pick a quarrel with the Gen eral. Major Stevens moved ou. and we formed to stop the Johnnies from crowding us too fast. We had the Chattahooche River io cross, and Major Beard knew that we must hold them in check until the In diana boys got across, when they coukl cover our crossing froin the opposite side. We would obstruct the road in' every con ceivable shape, build rail barricades, and •••hen it was possible fell trees in the road then, when they pressed us too hard, we retreated precipitately by the Fourth Ten nessee in ambush, and "wh^n the enemy struck them there was a stampede the other •way. Then the Tennesseeans would co by us, and we would receive the Johnnies in .the same affectionate manner. We kept 4his up until dark, when we selected a ridge half a mile from the river and forti fied it for a regular siege. Our horses wo had nearer the river, where we were lucky enough to find plenty of food, but food for ourselves was not to be had. We had nothing to eat that night except raw corn, not having time to parch or roast it. The Fifth Iowa nod Fourth Tennessee Cavalry, with Majors Beard and Stevens, stoodshouldir to shoulder through.all of that terribly long night, and repelled every attempt of the 'oe to drive us, for wo were there to stay. When morning dawned nine Tennesseeans and seven Iowans had »tt£'.ve?«d to the last roll-call—sixteen dead and several wounded, who had hastened to get across the river, where they could bo taken care of. The enemy did not make a rush ot us, as we expected them to they seemed to withdraw, but we knew it was only to get something to eat, so we im proved the time in feeding our horses and roasting some corn for ourselves. We were hardly in our places again when they tried to force our position mounted. A fatal mistake for them'. We hurled them back with a loss of not less than fifty killed, and captured thirty horses that ran to us rider less after we had beaten them back. This time they took a long rest, appa rently waiting for reinforcements. It was after 8 o'clock when tbey again commenced crowding us. Onr cartridges were getting veiy scarce—two hundred rounds to the man the night before now all we had were in our boxes, and they more than half empty. Just before 9 o'clock we got word that the Indiana boys were on the other side of the river, ready to protect out cross ing. Lieutenant Whit® of Company C, who had been reconnoitering, reported that the enemy was preparing for a grand assault on foot. Major Stevens asked Major Beard to leave him two companies to hold the fort, and he (Beard) to take the rest and get across as fast as possible. Major Beard consented, and Companies and were the forlorn hope of the Fifth Iowa, and and of the Fourth Tennessee. The Johnnies came slowly, but they meant business. We charged them with tho saber and drove them back. Major Stevens was slightly wounded in the shoulder, but he paid not the least attention to it. We now left our fort and made for the river to get over if possible. Major Beard was working like a beaver to get tho boys over, but there were still quite a number on the bank waiting to be carried over in the boat, which was too small to be of much service, but it had been worked all night to its utmost capacity. Now, if we undertook to ferry ourselves over, we would be gob bled without a doubt, so several of us pushed our horses in and swam over. I left, my horse and got on tbe boat and went back for the purpose of helping some of the boys to get their horses over. I helped several of tho boys to get their horses into the water. Some of them were bad swimmers, and consequently were hard on their horses. One German would have drowned himself and horse both if he had not got help. The pursuers were closing in .on us, and all that intended to get over must work fast. I got hold of a horse and pushed him in and swam him over. I had scarcely got out of the water when our poor fellows on the bank of the river opposite were charged by the enemy, who made a great to-do over them. There were perhaps thirty, all told, who could not get across the river. I got out of range of their bul lets and then 6at down to rest, when an officer of the Tennessee regiment came up to me and claimed the horse I had brought over. He said he left him with one of his company, who said he could lead him over just as well as not, .and so he came over in the boat. I now started to hunt up my own horse that I had left with a comrade. I found him, but one of the boys had taken pos session of him, and, as he had lost his own horse and was a married man, I thought it better to let my horse carry him and get through the woods myself. There was no wife then to mourn for me if I should not get through. So I, with four others, started out on foot. We were twenty-one days in the woods, and the horrors* of that time I will never forget. To undertake to give any thing like a detailed account of our advent ures wonld take weeks of close work. Some of the comrades are still living that spent those twenty-one days with me. We final ly reached our own lines near Bome, Ga., and started immediately for Atlanta, where we found our regiment One of the four that started with me was captured after being wounded, and taben to Andersonville, where he died. Soon after rejoining the regiment we were ordered to report to Gen eral Kilpatriek, which we did, and in a few days participated in the battle of Jonesbor ough. D. L. KXIGHT, Corporal Company C, Fifth Iowa Cavalry. COLFAX, Iowa. How Gettysburg was LOBI. General E. M. Law, of South Carolina, writing in the Century of his experi ences at Gettysburg, tells of a prop osition which he made to General Hood for an attack on the Union left, and says: "I found General Hood on the ridge where his line had been formed, communicated to him the information I had obtained, and pointed out the ease with which a move ment by the right flank might be made. He coincided fully with my views, but said that his orders were positive to attack in front as soon as the left of the corps should get into position. I therefore entered a formal protest against a direct attack on tbe grounds: 1. That tbe great natural strength of the enemy's position in our front ren dered the result of a direct assault extreme ly uncertain. 2. That, even if successful, the victory would be purchased at too great a sacrifice of life, and our troops would be in no condition to improve it. 3. That a front attack was unnecessary—the occupa tion of Bound Top during the night "by moving upon it from the south, and the ex tension of our rij. ht wing from that point across the enemy's left and rear, being not only practicable but easy. 4. That such a movement would compel a change of front on the part of the enemy, the abandon ment of his strong position on the heights, and force him to attack us in position. "General Hood called up Captain Ham ilton, of his staff, and requested mo to re peat tho protest to him, and tho grounds on which it was made. He then directed Captain Hamilton to find General Long street as quickly as possible and deliver the protest, and to say to him that he (Hood.l indorsed it fullv. Hamilton roile off at once, but in about ten minutes re turned. accompanied by a staff-officer of General Longstreet, who said to General Hood, in my hearing: 'General Longslreet orders that you begin the attack at once.' Hood turned to me and merely said. 'You hear the order?' I at once moved my brigade to the assault. I do not know whether the protest ever reached General Lee. From the brief interval that elapsed between the time it was sent to Genur.il Longstreet and the receipt of the order to begin the attack, I am inclined to think it did not. General Longstreet has since slid that ho repeatedly advised against a front attack, and sugges'ed a movement by our right iiank. He may hive thought." iftor the rejection of this advice by General Lee. that it was useless to press the matter. "Just here the battle ot' Gettysburg was lost to the Confederate arms, it is eless to speculate upon tbe turn affairs nvght have taken if the Confederate cavalry had been in communication with the rest ol: tae army, and if General htr.art had kept Gen eral Lee informed, as he should have done, of the movements oft ie Federal anny. In considering the causes of the Confederate failure on that particular lield, we must take the situation just as we find it. And tho situation was as follows: The advance of the two armies encountered each other on the 1st of July. An engag. ment ensued in which the Confederates were victori us. The Federal troops retired through Gettys burg aud took position along the heights oast of the town—a position which, if prop erly defended, was practically impregnable to a direct attack. "The whole matter then resolves itself into this: General Lee failed at Gettysburg on the 2d and 3d of July because lie made his attack precisely whew his enemy want ed hi'rn to make it and was most fully pre pared to receive it. Even had he succeeded in driving the Federal army from its strong position by a general and simultaneous as sault along the whole front which wa? the only possible chance of success in that di rection), lip would have found his army in very much the same condition that Fyrrhus found his when, after driving the Romans from the field of Asculum, he exclaimed, 'Another such .victory, and I am undone!' General P. E. Sickles* After twenty-three years of patient wait ing General Sickles has explained the rea son for his actions upon the battle-field of Gettysburg, and claims to have foteed the fighting on the Becond day, driving Out the Confederates, thus exposing them to the onslaught of the Union troops. Masy and valiant were the deeds of Gettysburg, and it is needless to exalt one more than the other, but Sickles was the courageous of tho courageous that day, and he left a leg behind him to tell the tale of hi91 daring upon that field, when twenty-thide years Rgo the contending armies met. On the Fourth of July, 188G. a numberlof thrf commanders of each side met on that same field to recount the deeds of valor, and, if possible, efface tho bitter memories bf the past. Daniel E. Sickles was born in New York, Oct. 20, 1822. He was educated at the University of New York, and was ad mitted to the bar in 1843. In the earlier part of his life ho took an active interest in politics, and up to the outbreak of the war had held several positions of honor and trust. When the war became inevitable Sickles raised the Excelsior Bri gade, and in June. 1861, received his com mission as Colonel of one of the regiments. General Sickles made a glorious record upon the battlefield, and because of his many deeds of bravery and valor his com rades deposited upon him the sobriquet of "Fighting Dan." After the war he was ap- Ee ointed Minister to Spain, which position resigned in 1874. "Fooling General Sherman." About six miles out of Savannah, I came across a farmer who accepted a plug of to bacco, and was ready to sit down on a log and answer all questions, says a corre spondent of the Detroit Free Presn. When I asked him about Sherman's approach, he burst into aloud laugh and slapped his leg, and was so tickled that he did not calm down for two minutes. "Excuse me, stranger," he finally said, "but whenever I think of how I fooled Gineral Sherman it tickles me all over." "Did you fool him?" "Well, I rather reckon." "How?" "Wall, you see, that's my place up thar' on the rise. When the war broke out I was the most cantankerous rebel you ever saw. I swore I'd fight and fout and fit till we lick the Yanks, if it took a hundred years. I reckon Gineral Sherman heard of it," "Probably he did." "Aud alter he look Atlanta he made up his mind to gobble me. He knew I'd swore to die before I'd surrender, and he came along down from Atlanta with over seventy thousand men, to surround me. Mighty cute old man, that Gineral Sher man!" "Yes." "Wall, they got here one night about 10 o'clock. I reckon that nigh on to thirty thousand of them Runounded my house up thar' and called for me to come out and surrender and end the war." "And of course you did?" "And of course I didn't! That's whar' the fun comes in. I wasn't home at all but was down in Virginuy with Lee. They entered tbe house and sarched and sarched. and went to tbe barn and called and called, and when the old woman finally told 'em I wasn't home they was the maddest crowd you ever sot eyes on. They had hoofed it all the way from At lanta to get their paws on me, and had had their long march for no'.hing! I ex poet Sherman was ready to bust with madness, and I reckon 'he won't never quite forgive me. It tickles (he old woman wuss than it tickles me, and you'd better come up to the bouse and hear her tell what them seventy thousand Yankees said when they got here and found me gone." A Relic of the War. An ugly war relic unexpectedly developed in the saw mill of the Paducah Lumber Company, at Paducah. In cutting a huge cypress log, which was culled from a raft of timber just out of the Tennessee liiver, the saw grated upon some substance which threatened to (lemoli it before tlo ma chinery could be slopped. Investigation found an eighteeu-pouud loaded bomb shell im'. edde.l in the log, in which the saw had traced a cut a third o£nn inch deep. Nothing outside of tbe log indicated where the shell hud eutered, probably twenty-live years ago, the bark remaining smooth nnd undis urbed. The lettering and figuring on the leaden plug to the shell, through whii-.h the fuse passed, are still as plainTis ever, and shows that the fnsc was clipped to hurst the bomb at 1,200 yards. It is probable the historic,il battle-held of Shiluli fu nishodthe projectile, as the trees throughout Pittsburgh Landing aud Shi'oh lield-: were badly cut and broken, l.-rga pieces of shells and solid shot, grape and canister be in. lo this dav pointed out to the visitor, imbedded and in some cases hardly visible, in the huge old trees which dot the sanguinary fields. Garfield Wanted Flour. At Pittsburgh Landing, in 18C2, a line of teams came down from tue army for rations. There were so many wagons to to loaded that great dispatch was necessary. A fine looking soldier, wearing a blue overcoat, presented his requisition. The commissary saw him take up a barrel of flour and toss it into a wagon ns if it required no effort. "I suppose you will require a receipt for these provisions said the soldier to the commissary. "Yes, your commanding officer must re ceipt for it." '"Can't I sign it?" "O. no it must be signed by a commis sioned officer." "Veiy well I'm a Brigadier General. My name is Garfield." RUM AND LABOR. WNiy Workingmen Drink A c-iallst View of the Question. [From tho Toledo 1 So- Blade.] Or. Sunday, December 19, the English speaking section of socialists in Chicago held a meeting at which a document was read nnd indorsed bv vote, which gave in detail a statement of the causes leading workingmen to indulge in drink. It is too long to publish, nor is it necessary to do so in order to understand the tenor of the opinions expressed therein. It is in the form of an open letter, addressed to the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, aud in some measure is a reply to the ap peal of that body to unions tnd other or ganizations of the workingmen of the coun try. It assumes that the W. C. T. U. ap peal made a charge of general intemper ance against workingmen—which it did not—and then proceeds to show that in temperance is as common among other classes, of the community as among the workingmen, which is, to a large extent, true. Then follows the most important part of ths document—a discussion of tho princi pal causes which lead to intemperance among the working classes of the land. They declare that the drink habit is the result of the environment and associations which the wage-workers are compelled to endure. These are treated under three principal heads: "heredity, social customs, and industrial conditions." The effect of the hereditary transmission of vice is dis tinctly recognized, but it is not discussed in this open letter. The statement is made that it is an undecided question as to what degroo men are morally responsible for acts committed under hereditary influence, audit is pleaded that a poor man is en titled to the same degree of leniency or condemnation as a wealthy one—in which we heartily agree. Social custom as a cause of intemper ance is next considered. It is shown to arise from an abuse of two of the best human qualities —'hospitality and good fellowship." The wage-workers, moved by that gregariousness which is the com mon attribute of all men, enjoy social con verse and the charm of society. The cause is stinted thus: "With but few exceptions the wage worker returns from his day's hard labor to a home of two or three small rooms in a crowded tenement to a bome where every inch of space is used for the actual neces sities of family life—washing, cooking, eating, and sleeping to a home with noth ing in it to excite him to mental activity unless it be the fames of his 6upper. He has no means to entertain visitors, no room to receive them but in the saloon he finds relief for his tired hand and brain relief from|the dusty factory and noisy shop. In the s&loon, with cards and beer and friend ly neighbors, his social instincts find a de gree pf gratification. "\Ve cannot check man's gregariousness. The saving of the race lies in this gregar ian instinct in the fact that we need each other. Man's social needs are as impera tive as his physical needs. As the grocery and meat market supply the demand for food, so, to many of our brothers, the sa loon furnishes the readiest and cheapest means of gratifying the social instinct. As long as this be true so long will it be pa tronized by him." This sounds well, and the unthinking reader will be apt to accept it. But there .is a fallacy in it. The workman flees from his homt that he may find congenial society, relief foi tired hand and braiu, relief from the dusty factory and noisy shop. But bow is it with his wife? She is gregarious, alsc she uas been cooped up in that same unlovely l»me so graphically depicted all the day long she has worked hard all day, and when we consider her weaker physiqne and more nervous organization, she stands just as much in need of change of scene, of congenial companionship, of relief from squalid hoiise and noisy children as does her husband from his all-day surroundings.. But she cannot go to the saloon, and, "with friendly neighbors" find gratification. No she must itay amid the identical surround ings that have been hers all day, and spend tbe evening alone, without her husband's society to cheer her. This plea is that of a coward. The es sence of marriage is companionship. Why can he not make a companion of his wife, and, if his home has "nothing in it to ex cite mtntal activity," why does he not take the money he spends in befuddling himself with leer to purchase books and papers, and t'aings to redeem its barrenness? Why must the wife be condemned to a life with in this arid waste of a home, so vividly pictired, while the husband need not? The logic is false, one-sided it will not bear honest investigation. Continuing the discussion of this branch of the subject, the document goes on as follows: "A circular issued by one of your tem perance organizations makes the startling announcement that 30,000 minors habitu ally visit saloons if that statement be true, and we will not dispute it, the number of minors visiting saloons must bo constantly increasing, for the causes producing that siate of things are operating unchecked, and unless some more suitable, more at tractive place of meeting can iu some way be provided for these young people the re sult will continue forever. The need for society is especially strong in the young. Light,music, cheerful company, and change of scene are needs of existence, with them. As the salotm furnish all these, it is an in evit ible consequence that they will frequent them." This is but uu extension of the same chain of false reasoning. Cause is placed for effect. If the workingmau who spends his leisure hours among tho dirty, i'oul smollin.'. debasing surroundings of a b.-er shop were to spend the money he there wastes iu making a com Tort ible, cheerful Then the third point it taken up—"in dnstiial conditions." We give the follow ing extr.icts, which give a fair statement of the argument: "If it be true that physical exhaustion aud mental depression create a desire for stimulants, then are the industrial condi tions encompassing him uaceasing, fruitful Cf.uf«s of intcmperaaoe. Upholsterers aud mattreBsmakern are obliged by their em ployers to work in rooms with the air thick with dust aud small particles of vegetable matter the air is sometimes so filled with this dust that it '8 impossible to see across the room. Breaching this constantly causes catarrh and conwumption. "In many tribes, as in dry-grinding, the workman has nr choice but to breathe the air charged witP small particles of metallic and other mine*' matter, by which means his lungs are rapidly destroyed. In the foundries, smithies and the sweat-boxes of the furniture manufactories the workman is compelled to labor in a temperature of 100 to 120 degrees, with no relief but drinking large quantities of cold-water, which, exuding from the pores of hiB skin, produces on exhaustive per.-piration. Toil ing under these conditions crcates extreme physical depression and an abnormal thirst which can only be assuaged by stimulants. "Add to these facts another—that the worker is rarely provided with a place in which to eat his dinner exccpt in the midst of the dust and poison-laden atmosphere of his occupation that seldom is any pro vision made for washing his hands or face —can he be blamed for adjourning to the saloon, where he finds change of air, a chance to become cleaned, and the abnor mally craved stimulant to wash his dinner down his dust-filled throat?" That many trades are pernicious to health is unfortunately too true but this affords no exotise for intemperance. The effect of alcohol is to open the pores, and render tbe absorption of poisonous dust, etc., more certain. It enfeebles the sys tem, and renders it leBS able to resist the environment. And it is not true that work ing in foundries, smithies, and furniture factories creates nn abnormal thirst "which only be assuaged by stimulants." Thirst is created, but it can be satisfied with pure water there is nothing "abnor mal" about such thirst. Water, tea, or coffee are as efficacious as beer, whisky, and other forms of body-rot. The plea is that of a drunkard seeking to excuse his appetite. The writer of this document immediate ly follows the last portion quoted above with the following, which he eyidently con siders to be a clincher of what has gone before: "In the evening, as he leaves his work, with its mind and body destroying influ ences, disgusted with his condition, dissat isfied with his meager pay, discouraged by the knowledge that his day's experience is to be repeated as long as he is able to give satisfaction lo his employer, with no attract ive home influences reaching out to him, is it a matter for astonishment if he repairs to the saloon, where, in the companionship of his friends, with the blandishments of the saloou-keeper, and the stimulus of the liquor, he finds relief and comfort in talk ing shop or politics?" We should think it extremely likely that a man who kept his system constantly sat urated with beer and whisky would be dis gusted with h:s condition. The vile poison breeds all kindB of morbid feelings. And it deoends upon whether he be a coward or not whether he goes to a saloon on his way home. A decent man would have a healthy appetite for his supper, and would go brisk ly home to get it and if he stopped on the way at all, it would be to spend his money, not for beer, bnt for something good to eat, to take home to share with his wife and children. God pity the workingmen of this land if they all were the selfish brutes pictured by the socialistic writer! Is a man to consider himself the be-all and end-all of his life? Does he owe nothing to his family, his friends? Is he, because he Is poor aud obliged to work, to consider that it is his duty to be constantly buying beer in a saloon? And, again, how about his wife? Why shall not some of the lachrymose pity which is lavished on him because his Gay's xperience "is to be rejpeated as long as he able to give satisfaction to -his employ er,"not extended to his unfortunate wife, who is likewise compelled rrery day, as long as life lasts, her toil in that home so graphically described as "with no attractive influences?" The whole argument is bad. As we said before, cause is put for effect, and effect for cause. The home is wretch ed and unattractive because the money that would make it so goes into the till of the saloonkeeper. The man loafs iu the saloon because he wants to drink, not be cause his home could not be pleasant if he wished to make it so. The whole document affords incontest able reasons why the saloon should be abolished. Crash the drink traffic, close up every saloon, and the man will be no worse oil than his wife and children. If they can stand the home which is always Ee. ainted in such unattractive hues, so can And if he has not the opportunity to become a drunken loafer every night, it may be that his dormant manhood* will reassert itself, and he begin to learn his duty as a husband and father, and do it. He may make his home attractive, aud take pleas ure in the society of his wife and receiving and repaying the visits of friends. But so long as there arc such teachers as the author of this precious document—a blind leader of the blind—he will not do so if there is a saloon wherein he can loiter. The work ingmen should look at this question in the light of truth and honesty and justice. When they can once see the situation as it really is, they will join hands in a mighty effort to Pulverise the Hum Power. Vrniikcuuess in Switzerland. Drunkenness having greatly increased in Switzerland, the Swiss are about to try a new experiment for restricting the sale of alcohol. The manufacture of ipirits has been made a federal monopoly, all distillers being required to sell their produce to the State, which will then resell it to the con sumer. The quality will be improved, strict regulations being enforced as to the sub stances used in distillation but the retail price will be raised, the Federal Govern ment expecting to raise £400,000 a year ... from tho monopoly, seven and one-hulf per home tor his wife aud children, there cent, of which must be spent by the Can would be no reason why the latter could hot receive their oung" friends there, and have society, aud music, and all these tilings which nr.i regarded as necessities. The truth is, the example of the father is pot-.nt: the children—that is, the male ones—follow his footsteps to the saloon the girls are condemned to the same lift* and snrionndings as their mother. Pray, is not the need for society as great for girls as for boys? Is the longing therc-for not as gr. at among the o:.e s.x as the other? Must the girls be deniad "light, music, cheerful company, and change of scone," that the boys may have nn excuse to loaf in beer-saloons and low aives, and follow in the footsteps of a brutish, lie.-otted, selfish father? Asain, we all know that the young need the socie ty of both (exes. If a boy spends his even ings in a saloon, how can he meet the other sex—at least the decent members of it? And how can young ladies enjoy male so ciety if the young men are all to be hang ers-on at saloons? Shall they go to the saloons also? tons on measures calculated to "chock the abuse of alcohol. It will be interesting to watch the effect of this experiment, which is the first effort ever made on a great scale to reduce the consumption of con centrated alcohol, while leaving that of diffused alcohol, as in wine and cider, un touched. English teetotalers will think the effort, thus limited verv foolish but doc tors, we suspect, will I).,- of a different op niou. It will be observed thut when the State has once obtained the monopoly it will be possible, if that is thought wise, to sell Kiiirits on iW.jr,™' or" two years—and seo what is the that.—London Sjwtalor. squired for tho ity" of the people. V" HISTORICAL. SLAYKRY existed In Greece till 1437. THE statne called the Farnese Her cules was found in Bome in the Baths of Caracalla, in 1540, and subsequently removed to Naples, Italy, where it is now deposited in the museum. The right hand i8 modern. THE Serfs or coloni began to appear after Constantine they were especially found Jn the frontier of the Boman Empire, and in the Gauls, Thrace and IHyria. They were sold •with the land, their only obligation being a small rent. THE first Itoman laws upon the ob servance of Sunday were especially in the interest of the working-classes, and clearly manifest the influence of the new ideas in the Itoman world. Thus, one in 321 A. D. forbade other labors than those of the field on Sunday, and all civil, public acts except emancipa tion. MANY people are probably not aware of the fact that New York had an Irish Catholic Governor in 1643, and for some years after. This was Thomas Dongan, the younger son of Sir John Dongan, »an Irish baronet, and a nephew to Bichard Talbott, Earl of Tyrconnel. THE cruel sports of Bome were not the only source of the degradation of Koman society. The exhibition of li centious shows and immoral plays had a profound influence. The extremes to which these were carried cannot even be explained in modern writings. It is not strange that the early Chris tians came to have toward these shows somewhat of the feeling^ which the English Puritans entertained towards all dramatic exhibitions. HELL GATE in the East Biver, New York, has been blown up within a com paratively short time because it was deemed an obstruction, and yet in lGCO, or thereabout, a glowing tribute was paid to Hell Gate, which was repre sented as sending forth such a hideous roaring as to deter any stranger from attempting to pass it without a pilot, and was therefore an absolute defense against any hostile approach from that direction. THE Irish greyhounds are of a very ancient race, and still exist (though their number is small) in their original climate they are called by the ancients, dogs of Epirus and Albanian dogs. Hollinslied in his description of "Ire land and the Irish," written in 1580, says: "They are not without wolves and greyhounds to hunt them, bigger of bone and limb than a colt." In Anglo-Saxon times a nobleman never went out unaccompanied by some of these dogs and his hawk. sell bpints on doctors orders only-say for to make them dependencies tribute result of to him or "to shut them up. '1 his iw SHATJL we license crime because some I men will persist in being criminals? Let local and 6tnte governments maintain a l)r'ce, and thus enabling him to under* proper attitude against all evils, and en- 1 forco effective penalties for violations of length of time as exhausts their in laws required for tho "safety and tranquil- WE have no hesitation in saying that ever}- teacher should be a total abstainer and that to place any other over school is to do the scholars a wro£ig.—Montreal Yi'ii nem. first of pleasure, the second of drunken ness, and the third of Borrow.— Anacluirsi* the Scythian. The Charges Against Him. It is not necessary to mention names, but there is a certain member of Con gress who is not the promptest pay in the world, and, to make it worse, he is as pompous as he is procrastinating. Once, when he was having a sharp fight for the nomination, the party paper, which was unfavorable to him, published charges against him of such a nature that he felt compelled to call on the editor. He went to the office, and the first man he met was the man he was looking for. "Here, sir," he said, without preliminaries, "I want an explanation, sir." "What about, Colonel asked the editor, smiling in the very pleasantest manner. "You have made charges against me, sir," stormed tbe Colonel, pawing up the splinters on the floor. "Certainly we have," responded the editor, more blandly than ever. "Well, sir, why did you do it, sir? Why did you do it? I demand an explanation, sir 1 repeat, why was it done, sir"Because you wouldn't pay cash, Colonel," said the editor, laying a bill on the counter "we have you charged with three elec tion announcement* at $5' each, and six years' subscription at $2 per annum, in advance—?-27 in all, Colonel." The shock was so great that the Colonel forgot all about the other charges and hurried out of theoiiice.— Washington Critic. Swedesboro's Big Tree. Near Swedesboro, on the Baccoon Creek, on the Joseph Black farm, there is the largest tree that I have ever seen it is a lrattonwood and sound and beautiful. It is nearly twenty-two feet in circumference, or between seven and eight feet across it. Mr. Alexander Black, an aged man, the former owner, remembers when the tree bad a notch in it large enough for a boy to sit in. Some fool attempted to cut it down. It has completely grown over so the bark is only rougher. I have no doubt it is growing fast and will wrestle with the storms in l'J-ii. A rich farmer was looking at it and said if it was on his farm he would not have it cut down or 1 0 0 0 at re as be he contemporary of tho Bla ks, Gaskills and Strattonfi for a century and milliter. It witnessed the liepublic's dawn, and was ssel in its youth l/ the same breeze thut boro the gladsome news of liberty. Little boys liava playetl under its branches and reposed in old ago under its amcle shade. Hcripturo says that tho time shall couio when a man's life shall be like that of a troe.—Salem(N. J.) Sunbeam. Commercial Si li!shshness. A merchant resolves to engross tho trade within a cert i:n area. He will extend his trading enpire to the "nftt* ural boundary" of the street, ale market place, town, or district. Having more capital than any of his competitors, and knowing a thing or two of which ignorant, he sets himself eithar does by iinding out what manufacturer w'10^esa^e of dealer is in pressing wan| .money, buying la,-g -ly at a reduce" seH bis fellow-tradesmen for such rior c-apital and eventual'y "shuts then' up. Having thus cleared the field, l|a can speedily reimbuse and indemnify lutufcelf by raising the prico of his cow I modrtie.s. Everybody who sees whaj I he is about cries shame on him. &n* I everybody buys of him, for the pxbliJ siness very near to com erciftl can (mbalism?—Di-y-Ooodn Chronicle.