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IE PACIFIC RAILWAYS.
I synopsis of the Reports and Recom mendations of the Com mission. fatter- or Prosecutions, Exten tctision of Time to the Kouds, Etc. [Washington «pecial.] I r»wrts of -tlio Pacific Kailway ommia 1-,'ivo boon given «ut for publication. two roixirts to the President, one commissioners Anderson and l.ittler •|illir iv Commissioner PnttiBon. The I' .'Il'tv report consists of 130 pages* The Ptljl A# llA y) (1 tit./l 4U» khe It'iii «®VGr0 stric*u*eB 1 inrvei'"' r,t 0f I mft'- all involving incessant litieation. |, 9»jrv I 1 BONDS. "nion Pacific $27,230,512 Kansas Pacific 0,304,000 'Vutral Urauch I'nion Pacific. l,tVJ0,lH)0 hioux City and Pacific. I,02^,:i20 A oiitral Pacific 25,8«r,P2J Wetitorn 1'aciUc 1,970|070 'l(Jtal (01,623,512 LANDS. Vr sc" or "I*"* certain iudi- mrversions of their trusts by Gould, ,t, and other former dircctsra of the Union find OtllG- nml lv Stanford, Huntington, Crocker, ti'll -'nkiJiH of t'10 Central l'aciao. The re- V-rrit tnkos up the Union l'aoific system, to the Government is shown IIIOM,«]iii'iiti»n r-t _. nrj,t yl. The total funded tlic system. Dee. 31, 1S8G, was W7 so (exclusive of its obligation to i'nfte'l States), of which 833,5»_',00J was I rtotho 1 States statutory lien. To re tlio payment of this sum and interest, (•rtiiimissiou oilor a b'11 providing for a upon which the I'nion Pacific Com- I m"'for tlio lirst ton years, will pay tho bum E .1--ii 4!'-."iannually, this being 3 per cant, on .'ro^i-nt worth of the debt to the Uovtsrn au.l lmlf of 1 per cent, of the outstanding nu'l, after tnat, an annual payment of lin wi. Tlio system requiring annual pay •n'ti'of'» percoiitaso of not earnings is de I." I tl, t.c undesirable, as leading to endless of tlie Union Pacific ltailway, as iV',10i in the Beeond part of the report, 'I it in claimed, "show that its assets have ilnni'i in former yours irg 'lv misapplied, and kl ut its fiiniiu'iul uliility to meet its obligations li'm heel) Mru'elv impaired by the action of men ii held ii.i«':iirv relations to the corporation." hiM'omn is^i'n then refers to the decision of ihu Vniii'il etiites f-upreme Court that neither (ioVir nin nt nor Congress, can institute pro .,1,1,.^ to compel restitution by any of these L.,c(.r°\vlii^li decision iH considered great bunfortmii'. In consequence of this decision Kl„. Commission lias inserted in the proposed nil a section requiring the Union 1'ucifie of iu accepting tho adjustment offered, "to Hse'ut tliut as to all causes of ac •ioii existing or to exist against any director or officer of the .linj'iiny, or any eauso whatsoever, the com iuy slmll, on application of the Department lus'tici! of tho United StateB, bring any suit Ji.i tnke nnv inoeceiliiWB that shall be directed II,v thatilri'iirtment, una prosecuto siuh suit jji oci eilinfis, under its direction, to final con niuimatinn The total debt to the Government of tho Ceu hrrii Pacific Company is t?7J»7u^,sa4f and the .it.jsninaioii propone a int rtgage under which I'iif company shall pay the Government |i annually for ten years, and after that •ju'dinn of Sl/.W.'-JO annually until the debt is l-'iu'l Tho application of tho remedy to tho I ivntral J'aciise Hail way Company is a" difficult I tank. It is hardly to be expected that any IHC 'resembling the act submitted in tho l.a-i'3 of tho Union Pacific will be accepted |:V tho Contra I Pacific. On- tho other haud, I :i tlio event of u, refusal to accept, upplictttion of the entire net earnings Suiting iroiu tliat portion of the road in con i«ieration ot which tho bonds were issued, is isisuthcient to meet the accruing interest paid nml to be paid to the United Stages. It is also umnJu-ient to accomplish a repayment of the •present worth of tho obligation, oven at the re 1 luct rut« of 'J per cent per annum, for the rea i-ui tliut tho entire net earnings will not amount per cent of tho present value of the debt. Th«.» conmiifijion beliove that tho enforcement 'if tin* government lien would result as a gift of ihu wholo amount duo the United States. Iho commission prapoBO that the Central ^•riuichof tho I'nion Pacific, wiioso obligation in tho (iovermnont is $3,240,681, execute a mort •jiigo, undor which ftlVkiiO shall l)o paid aimimllv for ten years, and SKU.OOO annually ih' ieftfter until tho wholo debt is paid. Tho obligation to the United States of tho Sioux City and Pacific Road in $t,:i84(057. A mortgage is proposed under which thocompauy liiall p»iv annually for ten years $110,2.0, and tj,bU0 annually 'thereafter until the debt is paid. I'j.o }illq submitted by the commission differ rrnii tiny pending legislation—lirst, in tne netl ls of computing j»resent value of indebt rj'IufBS fit'cond, they direct the discount to bo irtimiutcd at 3 per cent, compounded third, they add a mortgage to tho statutory lion rourih, they provide for a simpler bond fifth, they jUve wide raugo in tlio investment of tho jinking fund sixth, they forbid tho declaring •if UividcndB except from tho eurnings of the riscid year, and theno only ufter tho require uii'uts of the Government have been met "joventh, they require tho companies to insti :ub» litiits against ollicors for misappropriation of the company's funds eighth, they uincnd the iiuriiiiiu act so & to apply to the existing con* Jitiun of each company. in *»he second part of the roiort the comrnis MUII shows tho amouut of bonds and tho quan uty land received by tho Pacilie roods to be a* t'ollow€: Itute Acres, per acre. Amount. .!!»-'ii Pacific ll»3oy,S44 1.2•» §l4,l:i7,3!K» Aitnas Pacific C.fOJ.ODU 1.25 ',5.)i»,«:J0 ^ojitral 15ranch (J. P. 222,5f,0 1.25 278,20J Sions City a Pacific. 43,330 1.27 54,170 ontral Pacific 8,OOJ.Ot«) 3.25 10,0(K),0:)J '»outern Pacific 453,7i»4 1.2.1 567,2 i'S Total. $32,530,018 lotal bonds and lands $07,10,430 I ho report then contrasts the management of I limn Pacific since i«H4 with t)ie mothods ot Air. (ieuld, which are discussed in a manner »ot u» tiie iattcr's credit Tho Huntington man. •momentof the Contral J'ucific is also criticised ^'^oiely. As an evidence of tho Huntington •nuiuigGinunt the cost of the Central Pacific is -i\ou at 5-120,^72,52 when tho commission junu it waa H,:-J0i,S3i, leaving a profit of which was paid to Stanford, Hun -n^ton, Ji.ipkins and Crocker, being voted to •'"'in )»y their own vot-.-s. uther similar trans ',!!i urt' tfivi-n. The commission finds, wuie thero is no proof of actual bribery, that ^'i^y and passes have been used by officials /.-•'Huti *ucitlc ClJU1P^y ail(l .n! tho 'nr.-. rri110 infiuencing to the Sioux City and Pacific Company, .i" .oimuissi.n finds tnat none if tho re«iuire nents oi the act granting tho subsidy have L0M and that the action of tho directors ^"niding among themsehca the lirst niort bonds of the road was a wanton violation 'Mho L'rant. Hie minority report of Commissioner Patti M!1!18 ullcu^y different lroni that of his asso- «tt'rt ni respect to hi* recommendation for the of ('-ongress. His report occupies sixty .Vir'e:\an^ begius vith a most sweeping and iiost denunciation and arraignment °r!U( officers t»f the Union Pacific l'ro8cnt »nanagement of tho Central whose malfeasance, diversion of uoiit.ya belonjuny to the stockholders of the deliberate and fraudulent im- of tl10 Government's liens are pointed it with great particularity and eloquence. He 1 Ilu' question of tho pa)"ment of government, but of tho punish- /. •crimiual.s. He recomnionds as a ^"hat tho Government shall in uto suits in tho courts to have the charters ,.»• 1 r°.,w's forfeited, and for the appointment IO(-e|vcr, who, of course, will then have j., ^tir institute both civil and criminal ir.tT JV?ains^ thiiso who havo defrauded at once -.ii- /. 5i10 *tnd tho Government. He *b«'&ts that tho roads, after the forfeiture cbttftors, hhalJ be oJl'ered for sale, and itUat tl,0-v wil1 ii1 -rd* bo bought in by the Hi- discusses at length what he nt-iu.'i ,le?r r^eKent bankrupt condition, the -rni.w'?1*- uV^,OS6ibiUty of V1• 8 of collecting tho Gov- ^bts. and the imperative necessity Vnl, i1!? an 0Xtt*"Ple of the men who have roftds i/inif6 and defrauded the people at /"inority report, therefore, is not •m-a *1 a proposed bill for Congress to \ir ti.* ln& ^PPaveiitiy that tho proceedings ':li« fli°f the chartc-rs must be had in ^oui'rjla "n UrJ UOt P,eop!t! uf „f a as the rePeal most or all the tobacco taxes looks like a fore gone conclusion, but the matter is of so much.importance to l^e people of North Carolina that they will take no chances YEAR'S TRADE REVIEW The Busines^ Done Enormous—Larg* est Production of Coal on. Record. The Bailroads, the Stock Market, Wool and Iron Industries, and Money. iFrom Dun & Co.'s Review of liuninofia.) The dying year has seen 12,724 miles of railway finished, making the mileage for the Lnited States 150,710 but changes of freight rates at the West tend steadily downward, lessening the prospect for building next year. The Pennsylvania company reports a decrease of $17'.i,0ll0 in net earnings for November, nnd the Erie a decrease of $24,2:J3. The iron industry, after the largest year's output on record, is rapidly cutting down production, priues, and, at many points, wages. Since March the nverage of all grades at Philadelphia has declined $1.42, and of rails $6. Sales of -0,000 tons Alabama and Tennessee iron are reported, but no sales of rails, for which next year's orders cover only 220,000 tons. The Western Nail Association lowers card rates from $2.25 to $2. The cotton indus try records for the year larger prodnctions, sales, and profits than for 18M, and the yenr closes with an excellent demand, stocks well cleaned up, and many makes sold well ahead. But the woolen manu facture is described as having the most unsatisfactory year it has ever ex perienced, with business smaller and profits smaller than last year. Enormous impor tations have loft a large stock of dress goods on hand. Overcoatings are moving fairly, but fine goods at 5 to 10 per cent decline. Coal production has been the largest on record, but the market closes with some excitement, the Lehigh strike continuing, while dispatches affirm that Heading min ers will strike Jan. 1. The grocery trade has been very largo for tho year, nnd closes with fair activity, notwithstanding the speculation in coffee and the rise in sugar following reports of a decrease of U02.000 tons in beet product. Provisions hold the recent advance. Beef is again a shade dearer, and tLere has been a rise of six cents in oil. Cotton, in spite of small receipts, is a shade lower, but breadstutt's have risen, wheat and com about one cent each. Tho Treasury has added'§714,000 to its deposits with banks and $1,000,000 to the circulation during the week. It has now iucreascd the circulation of coin and paper about $fu4,000.000 since July 1 and §130,000,000 since July 1, 188G. The incomplete returns of olear ing-house exchanges indicate an aggre gate for the year not exceeding $51,030, 000,000, with a gain of about 4 per cent over last year, but November showed a small decrease, and in December the de crease in payments has been considerable. The year's failures show. a. decrease of 200 in number, but the large increase of So3, 0110,000 in liabilities, as follows: 1887—Number, liabilities, $1('.7, 5ll0,(.l44 average, S17,3:2. 1NK0— Number, 0,)S !4 liabilities, $114,. (*44,110 average, $11,051. The returns for the Dominion of Can ada show 1,382 failures, with §l(i,:tll.745 liabilities average, SI 1,80:S. The failures in the Dominion were one iu every tifty four persons in business in the United States they averaged one in every 111 per sons. The failures throughout the United States within the year, as reported by the Bradstreet Company, aggregate K,740, or 7.8 per cent, fewer than in the year ending with Dec. 30, 188(i, when the total was 10,508. The total number of business failures this year is just 2} times as large as in 1880, a period of some inflation and exceptional prosperity. The increase of nearly $17,000,000 in liabilities this year over last may be nearly accounted for by liabilities of Central, Western, and Middle States speculative traders amounting to al most that sum. Meanwhile assets increased over $8,800,000, more than 5 per cent, of the total increased liabilities, thus more than maintaining the previous year's aver age of solvency. The par cent, of assets to liabilities in 188H was 41) per cent., whjle in 1887 it is the annual average for three years being 18.1 per cent. On the whole, the exhibit must be regarded as fa vorable. The commercial death rate has declined, as compared with 1880, as well as may be judged, to nearly the normal, considering the recent business conditions and tho tendency to speculate to excess and consequent disaster. TUK SOl'TH G1COW1.NG. Figures Whieh Show Its K«*markalrie Pros perity ]ui*iiig the I'UML Year. Tlio Manufacturer»' li'ccmlof Iialtimore prints a review of the industrial growth of tho South for 1887, which, it says, was in many respects the most remarkable year in the history of that section, as more was ac complished for the progress and prosperity of the whole South than ever before in the same length of time. From Mary and to Texas the progress was re markable, covering almost the entire range of industry, and there is scarcely a single line of manufacturing or mining business in which the number of new enterprises reported during 1887 is not more than twice as large as in 188li. Of the fourteen Southern States there are only four in which the capital invested in new enter prises is not double the amount invested last year. The amount of capital, including capital stock or incorporated compnnies organized during 1887, compared with 1880, was: STATUS. Alabama Arkansas Florida (ioorGia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina. South Carolina. Tomiesseo Texas Virginia West Virginia.. Totals pw»Viuco of THE T01SACC0 TAX. Suitl to iSo it foregone Concla sil||, [Waahiiuitoti special. -sol't'i Carolina aro organ- busmess mon's movement in favor rePB«l of the tobacco taxes. The e' is t.eiuc curried on very 1SH7. lHriC. £17,yy2,OOU 24,4I(),«00| 2,780,000 15,:MI,UOO 40,04::, ooo 8,218,0J0 15,187,i!0J 4,771,000 9,707,000 :I,H'.)5,OOO :i5,6iil,ouo li ,4: o,ooo !iVZrM,000 8,'J00,0U0 il0.848,000 15.240,U0J 1,t .T.i,oo« 3,ASM,000 23,401,000 2,-210,000 s,7«j,000 774,UOO :i,076,ooo 1.20S,000 21,240,000 5,004,000 fi,514,000 (,303,000 S256.aj8,000i £120,220,000 In cotton manufacturing there has been rcat activity, and seventy-seven new mills have been projected, many of them being now under construction. This is the largest number of new mills ever reported one rear Cotton mills are reported as having largely oversold their production, ana many old mills are being enlarged to meet the demand for their goods. The industries of tbe boufch are bemg greatly diversified as well as iuw&sea. I WmmM STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS. Annual Report of Carroll D. Wright,' Chief of the Boreaa.of Labor. Details of Industrial Troubles Occur ring in the United States Tor Six. Tears. Vast Sums of Money Lost by Both Em ployer and Employe—Success and Failures. (Washington special Commissioner Carroll D. Wright hits submitted to the Secretary of the Interior the third annual report of the Bnreau of Labor, which relates entirely to strikes and lockouts for the period of six years ended Dec. 31, 1886. The report is regarded as of special importance, as it is the result of the first general investigation ever made by any nation of the facts concerning strikes and lockouts for any extended period of time or for any wide extent of territory. The report covers about 700 printed pages, and gives the details of each strike and lockout occurring in the United States during the period named. It exhibits the facts belonging to each industrial trouble for each locality where trouble was found, without attempting to establish or decide the connection between them. The follow ing table shows the number of strikes oc curring during each of the last six years, and the number of establishments involved. Concerns xear. Strikes, involved. 471 2,028 1882 454 .105 18M3 478 2,759 1881 443 2,307 1885 045 2,285 1880 1,412 9,893 Totals :),90:[ 22,:t3« In 1887, the report says, there were, ac cording to the best information obtainable, 853 strikes, details of which are not availa ble. The report shows that during the six years covered by the investigation, New JTork had the largest number of establish ments aft'ected both by strikes and lock outs, there being for the former 0,247 and for the latter 1,528. The building trades furnished O.OliO of the total number of establishments en gaged in strikes. The total number of em ployes involved in the whole number of strikes for the entire period is shown to have been 1,:(18,024. The number of em ployes originating the strikes was 1,020, 8H2. The number of employes in all es tablishments before the strikes occurred was 1,002,045, while the whole number employed in the establishments involved after the strikes was 1,(536,247—a loss of 25,708. There were 10:5,038 new employes engaged after the strikes, and 37,48:5 were brought from other places than those in which the strikes occurred. In 2,182 establishments lockouts were or dered during the period named, iu theBe there were 173,9'.t5 employes before the lockouts occurred and K.'.i,415(1 after the lockouts, while the number actually locked out was 150,548. There were 1:5,1)76 new employes secured at the close of the lock outs, and 5,682 were brought from other places than those in which the lockouts oc curred. "It should be remembered, however," says the report,, "that these figures do not represent the actual .number of individual establishments,, or different employes en gaged, as in many cases there have been two.or more strikes or lockouts affecting the same establishment in the same year. In such cases, the establishment and the number of employes engaged are dupli cated." Of the whole number of employes involved in strikes during the six years covered by the report, 88.5(5 per cent, were males and 11.44. per cent, were females. Of those involved in lookouts during the same period 68.78 per cent, were males and 31.22 per cent, were females. An examination of tho tables appended to the report shows that New Yorlc, l'eim? sylvania, Massachusetts, Ohio, and Illi nois represent 74.74 per cent, of the whole number of establishments affected by strikes throughout the country, and 'JO.80 percent., of the lockouts. These five States,it is stated, contain 40 per cent, of all the manufactur ing establishments, and employ 58 per cent, of the capital involved in mercantile industries of the United States. Of the 22 :s:5(i establishments in which strikes oc curred 18 :542, or 82.12 per cent, oi the whole strikes, were ordered by labor or ganizations, while of the 2,182 establish ments in which lockouts occurred 1,75:5, or 80.34 per cent., were ordered by com binations of managers. Of the whole num ber of establishments subjected to strikes there were temporarily closed for business 13,433, or 60.1'J per cent. on account of lockouts, 62.00 per cent. The average duration of stoppage on account of strikes was 23.1 days, aud for lockouts. 28 days. The results of the strikes, so far as gain ing the objects sought are concerned, are shown to be as follows: Success followed in 1,047 cases, or40.5'.l per cent, of the whole: partial succsss in 3,004, or 13.45 percent, of the whole and failure followed in 8,010 cases, or :5!i.8',lper cent, of the whole. By lockouts 5(14 establishments, or 25.85 pei- cent, of the whole, succaeded in gain ing their points 11.0, or 8.71 per cent., partly succeeded, and 1,305, or 5'J.8(I per cent, failed. As to causes or objec's of strikes, it is shown that increase of wages was the prin cipal one, 42.44 per cent. The other lead ing causes are given as follows: For reduc tion of hours, 19.45 per cent. against re duction of wages, 7.75 per cent. for in crease of wages and eduction of hours, 7.57 per cent. against increase of hours, 10.02 per cent. total few the five leading causes, 77.83 per cent. All other causes, 22.17 per cent. Disclaiming absolute accuracy, the report gives the losses of employes and employers resulting from strikes and lockouts as follows: Losses to strikers during the six years covered by the investigations, $51,81(^165. Loss to employes through lockouts for the same period, $8,132,7J 7, or a total wage loss to employes of )?5'J.!M8,882. This loss occurred lor both strikes and lockouts in 24,518 establishments, or on an average loss of $2,445 to each establishment, or of nearly $40 to each striker involved. The assistance given to strikers during the same period, so far as ascertainable, amounts to $3,325,057: to those suffering from lockouts, $1,105,538, or a total of $4,430,595. These amounts, however, the Commissioner says, are undoubtedly too low. The employers' losses through strikes for the six years amounted to $30, 732,653 through lockouts, $3,342,261, or a total loss to the establishments involved of $34,164,914. The appended tables also show that the chief burden of strikes was borne by thirteen industries, viz.: Hoots and shoes, 352 establishments brick-making, 478 building trades, 6,0(10 clothing, 1,728 cooperage, 484 food preparations, 1,41'J furniture, 491 lumber, 395 metals and metallic goods, 1,585 mining, 2,060 stonc, 468 tobacco, 1,929 transportation, 1,4.78. These represent 89.35 per cent, of the whole number subjected to strikes. In lockouts five trades bore 80 per cent, of the whole burden, as follows.- Boots and slioesj 155 estnblishments building trades, 531 clothing, 273 metal' and (me tallic goods, 76 and tobacco. 220 or total of l,V(il. Besides completing the field w&nt for this report, and the compilation of the in formation, the bureau has carried on- al most to completion the investigation begun last year concerning the moial, plysicnl, and economical conditions of the working women of great cities, and Las continued its investigation into the cost of gi'eat'sta ple products. It hns also rnderttken, ac cording to Congressional instruction, tho collection of statistics of narriag) and di vorce in the United StaieB, a report of which may be submitted bsfore tbe close of the present session of Cccgress. THIRTEEN THOUSAND. That Is thb Number of Miles of Rail road Constructed Sarin? the Fear. Kansas Leads, frith Nebraska nnd Texas Follovlnp— Interesting, figures. Chcago special.) The current nimber of the Jtdilwaii A ftc says that the y«ar 1887 has surpassed all: other years in the extent of railway mile age constructed in the United States. When, six mrnths ago, the prediction was made that th» total new mileage for. the year woulv'not be less than 10,000 miles,, with the lil«lihood of surpassing the record of 1882—tie year of greatest railway con struction the history of the country," it was not gmerally believed. But the figures obtained by careful investigation throughout the year and confirmed by official informa tion, now prove the prediction to have been more than warranted. The returns show that during 1887 no less than 12,724 miles of new main line track were added to the railway system of the United States, no account being taken in this of the hun dreds of miles of side track built, nor of the thousands of miles of' main track. relaid. It is not improbable that: some scattering additions mav vet be received so that it is safe to sta'te that during 1887 nearly, if not quite, 13,000 miles of- ne.w main-line track were con structed. These are truly astonishing fig ures. When in 1^2, during a period of extraordinary activity, 11,568 miles of new road were built, it was generally believed' that these figures would not again, be equaled. In the fcllowine year, 1883, the new construction fell to "6,741 miles in, 1884 to 3,825, and in 1885 to 3,608 miles. '1 he year. 188(5 witnessed a considerable re vival of activity and 9,000 miles of new road were built—a greattr mileage than in any previous year with the exceptions of 1881 and 1882 and no^ 1887 has witnessed, the building of more' miles of railway than, 188G and-1885 combined, and not much less than.1885, 1884 and 1883 together^ The following summary shows the detail ed records of the.number of lines and,the mileage laid in each. State and. Territory during the year 18fc^: No. lines. Mis. Maine N. Hampshire. Veruionc Massachusetts Connecticut.... Uhode Island. New York New Jersey.... 2 Pennsylvania Ui Delaware Maryland...... 1 West Virginia, a Virginia North Carolina 10 South Carolina 7 No. lines. M'IB. Indiana. 9 115 Illinois 12 328 Wisconsin 11 Minnesota.. Dakota .. Iowa 5)7 NeLraal-a 6 lotal in 42 .States 191 70 17 10 8i._ Wyoming ... Montana..... Kansas Missouri Indian Ter.. 15 17 1,101 3 ll« 7 Old 4.1 2,070 16 r,.u r, in llo 04 Arkansas l&JlTexus lUJjColorada* y»U New Mexico... 1W, Nevada fi") Califoruia ..... 1W Idaho cr»,i tahi 08iAri.Tona 108! Oregon 155 Washington. T. 70Uj tieorgia*... Florida.... Alabama .. Mi6Hissiiti Louisiana Tennessee Kentucky.. Ohio Michigan.. 8 10 15 5 4. 10, 8 11 13 H- 153 19 1,055 9 bl8 3.".8 51 70 48 103 3C4 12,7 JtKCAI'ITl l.ATIOV. No. Lints. Miles. :i Now England Stfttss S 109 5 Middle States 25 308 10 (Southern States si 1,091 5 Middle Western States !!. 5U l.CJl (i Northwestern,States li'i 3.15S tl Southwestern States 101 5,149 7 Pacific. States 27 C4S 42 of tho 47 States—totals 3, 12,724 •V TWEKTV XKAlts' RECOKl). For the purpose of comparison we re print the following summary of track-lay ing during, each, of the twenty years pre ceding 1887 Year. Miles..! Year. Miles. 1«7.,, 2,24«jlM77 2.iSU iHtiH 7 2,97:1187a 2|U29 1809 4,lil5|tS79 4,7-16 1871) (i,|J7.0!18H0 0,870 187 1 7,:)7!)il881 9,790 187 2 i"„Sj!lllH82 11,508 187 3 4,09711883 0,741 187 4 2,117 H.S4 3,825 1875..,,. IJllilStsi 3,008 1870 2,71211880 9,0.0 The Uailway Age says: Xot only is the agjreuate mileage thus shown extraordi narily great, but the number of different lines constructed is seen to be surprisingly large, aggregating, after deducting for the duplicating of roads lying in two or more States, no less than 361 lines. Of course thje number of companies building these lines was very much less than this but these figures "show that the new mileage is not made up chiefly by a few long lines, but consists ot' main lines and branches ramifying in all directions and supplying facilities for transportation to innumerable communities and to vastly extended re gion-*. What has been the cost of this year's work? Many of the lines have been built through comparatively level country, re quiring but little grading and bridge building but, on the other hand, many other lines have been most costly for ex ample, those over the ltockv Mountains in. Colorado, the Southern Pacific extension in. Northern California, the Atchison's Kansas. City and Chicago extension, the Northern. Pacific's work in the Cascade Mountains, and others. Moreover, several of tho coi»r panies have purchased costly terminal facilities in larye cities, while nearly all: have made extensive purchases of equip ment. It is probably fair to assume, that, the total cost of roadway, bridges, ste.tipur buildings, terminal facilities, aud equip ment of these new lines averaged S25,00Qi per mile at which rate it appears that not far from S3-5,000,0U0 have been expended on the lines completed during the year. But even this prodigious sum doe* not by any means cover all tbe outlay for liew construction, as a large amount of grading and bridge-building has been, done oii ex tensions where the track has. not yet been laid. Evidently the work of tlii-railway,builder iu 1887 has necessarily had a poweiful in fluence on the financial condition of the country. The money which lias thus been expended has temporarily employed a large army at' workmen, and it has also furnished permanent employmeiat to another great army, probably aggregating— at the average of five, employes to a mile of road—about 05,000 persons. An industry which in a single year furnishes permanent occupa sijon for 05,000 mon, besides temporary work for a still larger number, certain.^ promotes the prosperity of the people if, a, wonderful^degree. IT is not so niueb the years have spent as the use we have made of them that will eount when our '.ltc-^'ovk is reckoued CONGRESS MAY DECIDE Commissioners in Doubt About the Status of Independent Express Companies. Organizations Ron as Adjuncts Railways Subject to the Conqperca Law. of IWaBhington special] The formal decision of the Inters-State Commerce Commission upon the question whether the express companies are subject to the provisions of the act to regnlato commerce was announced Thursday. The Commission, after describing the different organizations doing express nnsiness, says there is nothing in the nature of the busi ness which prevents its being carried on by an ordinary partnership or even by an individual, provided the necessary con tacts can be made with the transportation lines. The most usual contiact is one which pays to the railroad company 40 per cent of the gross receipts of the express company, but various other methods of settlement are employed. The fact that express companies perform many other services besides transporting property, such as the collection of debts, etc., is not regarded as a reason why the act sliould not be treated as applying to their busi ness as eommon carriers, since many rail roads also have other business besides that of transportation. The various sections of the act, consid ered with relation to the express business, are-found to be iu theory as applicable thereto as to the business of railroads. In fact, tbe express companies claim that they already abide by the rules established in the act. The requiring of annual reports from express companies is said to be & matter concerning which the public have. right to be informed, and Congress may) particularly desire knowledge. At present little is known about the amount of their capital stock, their funded' debt, or the money invested in their plant or business, the volume of their business, with the ex pouse thereof, the rates charged, and the methods, upon which the rates are con structed. The capitalization of some of tbe companies is known to be quite large,-, amounting to many millions of dollars. The difficulty of framing schedules for tlie information of the publie is not found to-be greater than in the case of railroad companies which have complied with the. act. Three express companies haye so complied, and their schedules have been placed on file. The agents of all express companies are necessarily instructed as to, tho charges to be made, and the public is equally intelligent. The bringing of express companies with in tl provisions of the act is found to be practicable, and on some accounts desira ble. The express companies, which are simply branches of a railroad, organized and operated through its ordinary staff, or by an independent bureau, or by a combi nation with other railroad companies, are found to be covered by the provisions of tbe act. In the case of the independently organized express companies, however,, operating under contracts, the lan guage of the act, as it now stands, is found to be so framed as not, to "bring them distinctly within its provis ions. The words "wholly by railroad" in the first section do not, well define the business of express companies which nse very largely the services of teams, messen geis, stage coaches, and steamboats. The pooling section applies to the pooling.of the business of railroads other sections speak of railroads continually, and of de pots and stations, the language not being applicable lo tho business of express com panies, except undeo somewhat strained construction. The express business .was well known at the time of the passage of the a: t, and has been frequently mentioned by naming congressional statute*. The omission to name it here is significant. The preliminary investigation by the inter stale commerce committee of the senate did not include the business of express companies, and was confined almost wholly to that of railroad companies.. Cpon all these considerations the com mission has thought best to refer the sub ject to congress, as in any case of doubtful jurisdiction it is fax better that the legisla. tive body should resolve the doubt... THE T0LLIVER WAR. Peace Reigns in Morehead, Kj., the Seat of the Feud in Which Twenty two Men Were Slain. [I.oi'inKton (Ky.i special.] Morehead, Ivy., has been prominent be-., fore the public during the lasti three years because of. the bloodshed and reign of ter ror in llowan County and her capital. A great change has come over Morehead, and now, instead of the crack of the death dealing Winchester, can be heard the hum of industry and the scenos of peace. It was six months ago when. Craig Tolliver and three of his men were slain by the law aud order men of llowan County, and day Morehead is not like the same place. Confidence has been restored, and the pop ulation of the place has increased until there is not a vacant hou$e in the town. Those who took part in the fight against Tollivetf and his gang on June 22 do, not. appear to gloat over their victory in the least* and treat Tollivsi's friends and sym pathizer with the ufcaaost consideration. In fact, there seems to.,be little desire on the part of anybody to renew the, feud whioh. has, in three s&ort years,, been the cause of twenty men.losing their liv.es. The widow of Bud Tolliver has made some threats against Bocno Logan, it is true, but that young man doesn't seem to care much fior them. The "fighting'" Toilivors all liye iu Elliott County, but occasionally come down to Morehead. While there they bep. have themselves, and do not Jry to run the town as they formerly did. Tbe twenty ra^n who have been killed, since the Martin-Tolliver feud began in. August, 1884, lie buried in.several counties. and in many different graveyards. Spicy.. A little three-yearr«ld Eocklandor went into a market le»t week, and help ing herself to a green,pepper tried to eat it. Aftea she had failed file marketh in an asisd her wltat the ma,ttez waa with tha-fruit, and.3he replied, b»t.w,aeai sobs, Vere was a bumbl j. bee io, iiu.'* —Midctleboro Njivs. Tw» or Kind. Minister—And do you like to go to church with your papa aru! mamma, IJpbby Bobby (isclined to be non-ooiamitar) -=-\Yell, I guess I Ske it as well aa pa docs.—Niw York Sun. DER fashions of dor vorldt changiu all der vhile, but gootnoas fir tuo nefer hafea cent vorth of ch THE SUNDAY SCHOOL Notes on the Lesson for January. 15—"Jesus Walking on the Sea." IFrom the Chicago S'tiuidnrd.i' Tne lesson lor tho above datts may lo fonnd in tho fourteenth chapter of Matthew, from tho twenty-second to the thir.y-thir.i versea, inclusive. »AlLr.»EAI)INOH. ST. The connection. Mate. 14: KJ 'JI.. T. Tho IOIHOII. W. Mark's account Mark. C: 45-5: T. John's account... John (i: 15-21. F. Tho walk of faith. Roiu. 4: 1 '.(-25. S. How to ploase Go.L Heb. 11: 0. 7. .. •S. Safety by faith, l's. 32: 0-11. BREAKFAST VEBSKS. M. "Doing woiulers." Exo.ius 15: U... T. "Thy path." PH.. 77: 1.9. \Y. "Without me." John 15:5. T. "Byrne." John 10: 0. F. "Como to sava" Matt. IS: IL S. "His wind." l's.. 147: 1.8. S. "To Him. Horn. 11: 30. INTRODUCTORY. There is a little ship to be descried in the twilight of tho early morning out upon a bois terous sea, aud there i.* heard a quick, sharp cry of alarm. Straightway there comes an.. answering word of cheer, its if a father had. spoken to his frightened child iu tho night Tho disciples, fresh from the mountain~sidau feast and hurrying across by their Master's command to tho other Bide, are cast into tbe midst of a storm aud realize once again and in., a new and vivid-way tlicir dependence upou.. him and he, walking the waves to their d" liverance, proves once again and in a new and. wondrous way how graciously, willingly and able he is to save. "Of a truth,".wo may aayi with thorn, "diou art tho Son of God." Ihu' place is the Sea 'of Galilee, not far from Ca poruaum, and the time is the spring or carlv summer of A. D. L'S, tho third aud last-year. of our Lord's ministry. WHAT THE I,EH80N SAYS.. 23. Straightway. There was a call tor "thaw King," .and an intonse excitement over th&* royal miraclo of ..the ..loaves and fishes :jn which, no doubt, the disciples joined, bufet Christ paused not to humor it. The ward. "straightway" is omit ed by Tischendorf. (•'omtrained* The root word means necea-. ajty. He persuaded his disciples of the im perative requirements of the step. Ot/iiiy tide. It is a modification of tho Greek woxiM Used hero, perau, that gives a name 'a tlu» parts beyond Jordan, Perea. Sent a»Mi i.itorally, dismissed or loosed the mul UiutW Seemingly requiring his word in order Jo .iw set froe. 28. A mountain,. or the mountain lah one of the high aud quiet recesses of £IBI!U] over agaiuBt the sea Apart. By himself Alone with God. as later in GethiemM (Matt. 2li 36) and earlier iu the Horns at }3m tin (Luke t: 12),-T—The. evening. Tlio -Se ond ovening ,or twilight, about aix o'c!** The earlier evening was mentioned iu '/era® 24. .Vow. After a few hours- sailing* rough water.—^Jn the midst: Not neqes rily in the middle bus in mid-oourae* ..oa high seas. TonsoL Literally itorturedi to the severest test The expression,) lirst used of rubbius: on the whetetco* ('ontrary. Greek, JCnantio*..... la,thata4 They wore going iu tho toeth of thej.i Dr. Broadus .in a footnote in his laie» meutary tells of .a similar personal,, rience with the treacherous winds c£. 3» when crossing,from this same poind.i. 25. fourth waMi. From.^ix p. oa a m. equals twelve hours of.the,nie« night, divisible, by the Jews into:thce or lator, as here, according -to. torn, into four, watches, of three .how The fourth watch would, .therefore, twepu three and six a. m. iu the, g^a morning. Walking. The wari?,E» a calm, un^trainod procedure Thai that used to designate the qqiet-ipf the academicians, peripatetics: bfc4 this verb. It was.liko, an easy or imagined. "UnpleS- NOTJ:.—To ars by the- ta ble SHarciSiinr 1. WJiate1 what bno Ci which tho JohlUJi: 17 2. What God'k inrvt & N'Jxt lesson: atL 15: 21-31. v,*A A HEN that attends to the busirand is properly cared for, will lay her weight }a #ggs in two months. WMisM 15. on sa tho put was face, rind, com. expe •lilee, to six huieal parts, cus each, be bo of the UBOd of same as icings of ing from pen path h. ght of his that it was 3 of ration than that, ion in their ose sugges —A spirit. sed here, an aps, induced straught con ular supersti rightly inti •B to a specter of the resur- RCURM v.u' way to the Lord of hoavon and eiiift 26. Saw hitn. Suddenly catchm-y^.1 figure ou the water (llleek on the near shore—a dosperatopiae alistic fancy)..——Trouble,il., Myun distracted Thrown into CMISIW rowing, a pictorial expression, .nfc tious can be readily •.•realiKarit Phantasin is the- very word a empty shape the disoiplest-BMli in part by. their nervous, anddfc dition, falling in .with the po tion .regarding ghosts. ScbaflS mates that this oxplicit refereai here sets asido the ghost tiller reel ion., 27. »S'pake. Talked withuihi is applied to quiot conversati was like his face, at nearer a/ and composing. —^-(Jood is I do not bo frightened,if literal translation of, the ™r in their order. 28. Answered*. As can Pater was ready with jjn sponso. ——Birtnm. Givio mons. Keleuo is the- acfsfrl aud the Keleustes of the boatswain, or the.nian.apr to the rowers by liis-callj." were, for such.,an ordeitl his oar and leaped into ui 2!). ('vine. A portmo Walked. Same word, af as it was m: the- san faith.—— Tp.ffo.- 'Df.-wl came to Jesus." Jost far distant We are a subsequent boat-saer )in. Tho word on. His voice .jproach calming er. "Courage, il vould be a more as they occur 4 rAto other occasions ick, impulsive re the word of sum •0881011 used here, Athenians was the 'ointed "togivetimo Peter waited, as it .nd then threw down flood sivo imperative. was used of Jesus, ie strength through lendorf says: "And is was doubtless not jminded by all this of to in Potor's career. V«UCEK 31 OALILEE. 1. Tho voice o£ atn 3. 'Hie voice of pet i. The voice of faa 4. '1 lie voice of io 5. An impulsive- vi 4 straint (v. 22). ition (v. 28). (vs. 24-26). infort (v. 27). Jico (v. 28). oice (v. 29). ospair (v. ill)). oproof (v. 31). raUe,(vs. 83, SI). .'S OU.TECT LESSON". .1 easily be made by folding .iff paper, according to the ii. A quiet sea can be rep is of a newspaper foiled out creasing and rumpling it, a reseutatioii of a troubled sea A.perniisbiv.c- 7. The voice of d 8. The voice, off ft The voice of CHliWasMS IOT A'.papor boat'ea4 aud unfolding s' proscribed patter resented lly meal smooth. Slight! fnir enough, rer tor, all practical purposes can bo secured. ... Christophlkd' r-v- to It Kiv(' object sketches of IjBt the,n b(! de*°ribed QUESTION-DRAWER. be given out singly to tho schol iclier the week previous for Bi- /angelist mentions Bethsaida and tpernaum, as tho points toward lisciples were sailing? (Mark 6: 45 Old Testament writer speaks (Job y- S jJi"S "upou of tllB waves of J1( the sea* ii a he no a a a an rn disciples again at first "terri ?'affrighted?" (Luke 24: 87.) 4! if what apostle, in diro straits, did the TL subsequently .appear with the same "Be of jrood oheer?" (Acts 23: 11.) 'i k'hich Psalm begins: "Pave me, OGod aniiir ht called the prayer of the floods ,m611.) To what did .Tames liken the faith of him wavoroth? (James 1: G.) •'Jesus and tho Afflicted."— THIS conundrum comes by private conveyance from a Rutland county town: "What two rivers in New En gland ask and answer a question? Hoosic and Passumsic."—St. Albans Messenger. WHAT is probably the first recorded photograph of a rainbow has been ex hibited to the Photographic Associa tion of London. Tho arch lias the ap pearance in the proof of something salid, like an arch of wood. PHILIP HONEY, of Stafford, Va., hauls' railroad ties regularly with a mulo which he brought home with him from the army. WE always like those who admire us we do not ulwnys like thoao whouv we adrftive, —Iio/:ftefyucauldx